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# Chapter 20 Electricity

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## 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

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Electric Charge
Electric energy is the energy associated
with electric charges. Electric charge is a property that causes subatomic articles to attract or repel each other. Draw and label and atom and write the charge of each of the particles in your notes.

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## The atom is neutral because it has an

equal number of protons and electrons. An excess or shortage of electrons produces a net electric charge. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C) which equivalent to 6.241018 electrons.

## 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

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Electric Forces
Like charges repel and opposite charges
attract. The force of attraction or repulsion between electrically charged objects is electric force.

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## Coulomb discovered that electric forces

obey a law similar to the law of universal gravitation. The electric force between two objects is directly proportional to the net charge on each object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Force=q1q2/r2 q1q2 are the charges and r is the distance between the
charges.

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What happens to the electric force when you triple the net charge on one of the particles? It triples the original force
What happens to the electric force when you triple the distance between the particles? It is reduced to 1/9 of the original force

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Electric Fields
The effect an electric charge has on other
charges in the space around it is the charges electric field. The strength of an electric field depends on the amount of charge that produces the field and on the distance from the charge.

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## In figure 4, the lines representing the field

are closer together near the charge, where the field is stronger. An electric field exerts forces on any charged object placed in the field. The force depends on the net charge in the object and on the strength and direction of the field at the objects position.

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## Static Electricity and Charging

Static electricity is the study of the
behavior of the electric charges, including how charge is transferred between objects. Charge can be transferred by: 1. friction-rubbing two objects together 2. Contact-touching another object 3. Induction-transfer without touching, through another medium

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## Whenever there is a charge transfer, the

total charge is the same before and after the transfer occurs. The law of conservation of charge says the total charge in an isolated system is constant.

## 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

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Charging by Friction
Rubbing a balloon through hair is an
example of charging by friction. Electrons move from the hair to the balloon because atoms in rubber have a greater attraction for electrons than atoms in hair.

## 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

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Induction
Induction occurs when charge is
transferred without contact between materials.

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## 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

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Static Discharge
Static discharge occurs when a pathway
through which charges can move forms suddenly. Lightning is an example of static discharge.

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## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Electric Current
The continuous flow of electric charge is
an electric current. The SI unit of electric current is the ampere (A), or amp, which is equal to 1 coulomb per second. There are 2 types of current: direct and alternating In direct current charge flows only in one direction.

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## In alternating current the flow of electric

charge regularly reverses its direction.

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## In direct current, electrons flow from the

negative terminal of a battery to the positive terminal. If the electrons are flowing clockwise, how is the current flowing and why? Counterclockwise because they decided the current was the flow of positive charges before they actually determined it was the electrons that moved.

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## However, scientists define current as the

direction in which positive charges would flow.

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## Conductor and Insulators

An electrical conductor is a material
through which charge can flow easily. Material through which charge cannot flow easily is called an electrical insulator. Conductors: metals Insulators: plastic, wood, and rubber

## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Resistance
Resistance is opposition to the flow of
charges in a material. The SI unit of resistance is the ohm (). A materials thickness, length, and temperature affect its resistance.

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## As temperature increases, resistance

increases because electrons collide more often. As the diameter of the wire decrease the resistance increases. As you shorten the length of the wire, the resistance decreases. As you increase the gauge of the wire the resistance increases.

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## A superconductor is a material that has

almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures. The best superconductor yet found must be cooled to about 138 K.

## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Voltage
In order for charge to flow in a conducting
wire, the wire must be connected in a complete loop that includes a source of electrical energy.

## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Potential Difference
Charges flow spontaneously from a higher
to a lower potential energy. The potential energy of a charge depends on its position in an electric field.

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## Potential difference is the difference in

electrical potential energy between two places in an electric field. Potential difference is measured in joules per coulomb, or volts. Potential difference is also called voltage.

## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Voltage Sources
A source of voltage such as a battery does
work to increase the potential energy of electric charges. Three common voltage sources are batteries, solar cells, and generators. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy.

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## 20.2 Electric Current and Ohms Law

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Ohms Law
The unit of resistance is the ohm. Ohm discovered that voltage is not the
same everywhere in a circuit and hypothesized that resistance reduces the voltage. He found a mathematical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

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## Ohms law states the voltage in a circuit

equals the product of the current and the resistance, or V=IR. (work problems in notes) When the current is in amps and resistance is in ohms, the voltage is in volts. Increasing the voltage increases the current. Keeping the same voltage and increasing the resistance decreases the current.

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## 20.3 Electric Circuits

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Circuit Diagrams
An electric circuit is a complete path
through which a charge can flow. Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit, including a source of electrical energy and devices that are run by electrical energy. See figure 12.

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## Open vs. Closed Circuits

In an open circuit the switch is open, so
the circuit isnt complete. In a closed circuit, the switch is closed, so the circuit is complete an electrons can flow.

## Series vs. Parallel

In a series circuit there is only one
path for the electrons to take. In a parallel circuit there are multiple paths to take.

## 20.3 Electric Circuits

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Series Circuits
In a series circuit, the charge has only one
path through which it can flow. If one element stops functioning in a series circuit, none of the elements can operate. Adding bulbs to a series circuit increases the resistance, decreases the current, and each bulb shines less brightly.

Series Circuit

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## 20.3 Electric Circuits

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Parallel Circuits
A parallel circuit is an electric circuit with
two or more paths through which charges can flow. If one element stops functioning in a parallel circuit, the rest of the elements still operate.

Parallel Circuit

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## Power and Energy Calculation

Power is the rate of doing work. The rate at which electrical energy is
converted to another form of energy is electric power. The unit of electric power is the joule per second, or watt.

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## Electric power can be calculated by

multiplying voltage by current (P=IV). Power is often measured in kilowatts (kW), but the SI unit is Watts. To find the electrical energy used by an appliance, multiply power by time (E=Pt). Unit is kilowatt hours (kWh). Work all of the power and energy problems in the notes.

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## 20.3 Electric Circuits

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Electrical Safety
Correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers,
insulation, and grounded plugs help make electrical energy safe to use. Most homes are wired for 120 volts. Most circuits can accommodate approximately 20 amps. A circuit breaker is a switch that opens when current in a circuit is too high.

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## A fuse prevents current overload in a circuit by melting and fuse is blown.

Insulation-prevents short circuits Three prong plugs: prevent shocks caused by short circuits. The third prong connects to the ground.

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## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Electronic Signals
The science of using electric current to
process or transmit information is electronics. An electronic signal is information sent as patterns in the controlled flow of electrons through a circuit. Electronics conveys information with electrical patterns called analog and digital signals.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Analog Signals
An analog signal is a smoothly varying
signal produced by continuously changing the voltage or current in a circuit.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Analog signal
changes continuously, has many voltage values, resembles the pattern of the original signal, and is easily distorted.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Digital Signals
A digital signal encodes information as s
string of 1s and 0s. Digital signals are more reliable than analog signals.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Digital signal
changes abruptly, has only two voltage values, does not resemble the original signal, and is not easily distorted. A DVD encodes digital signals as a series of pits on the DVD surface.

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## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Vacuum Tubes
To create an electronic signal, the flow of
electrons must be controlled. A vacuum tube was used to control electron flow in early electronic devices.

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## Vacuum tubes can

change alternating current into direct current, increase the strength of a signal, or turn a current on or off.

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## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Semiconductors
A semiconductor is a crystalline solid that
conducts current only under certain conditions. Most semiconductors are made with silicon or germanium.

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## There are two types of semiconductors

In n-type semiconductors, the current is a flow of electrons. In p-type semiconductors, it appears as though positive charge flows.

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## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Solid-State Components
Most modern electronic devices are
controlled by solid-state components.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Diodes
A diode is a solid-state component that
combines an n-type and p-type semiconductors. Because the current can be in only one direction, a diode can change alternating current to direct current.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Transistors
A transistor is a solid-state component
with three layers of semiconductors. A transistor can be used as a switch because the small current can turn current on or off. Transistors can also be used as amplifiers. Small voltage on one side produces large voltage on the other side.

## 20.4 Electronic Devices

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Integrated Circuits
An integrated circuit is a thin slice of silicon
that contains many solid-state components. Integrated circuits are also called chips or microchips. Integrated circuits are fast compared to vacuum tubes. The current does not have to travel far to get from point to point in the circuit.

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