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BY, SARATH V S7 CS Roll No: 29

In the late 1990s, a scramble to provide highspeed Internet access resulted in a number of strategies and technologies including DSLs

and cable modems. Satellite constellations were also deployed, but perhaps the most interesting were the flying/floating platforms called HALOs

Before we begin

Orbital Slot and Look Angle

Need for New Network Technologies

The markets of multimedia, broadband and wireless network systems are growing rapidly.
Demand infrastructure that can be quickly

and economically deployed.

So the network systems should provide the


Services must be provided at affordable prices to the end users, businesses and consumers.
QOS must be guaranteed. Information bandwidth must be capable to

respond dynamically to the needs of the end user.

Innovative Communication Networks are

being pioneered to provide these.


It stands for High Altitude Long Operation Network.
First of its kind was developed by Angel Technologies

It is a broadband wireless MAN having data rate

upto 10 mbps.
Its solitary hub is in a HALO aircraft commonly

known as HAAPS(High Altitude Aeronautical Platform Station).

Topology Used
It has star topology.

HALO Aircrafts are located at an altitude

miles above terrestrial wireless, but hundreds to thousands of miles below satellite networks.


HALO Aircraft

Powered by 2 jet engine fans Fly for 8 hours shift at 16 km height Houses the communication equipments Covers an area of 100 km

The Halo Aircraft serves as the hub of the network.

Consists of ATM switch, spot beam antenna,

multibeam antennas as well as transmitting and receiving electronics.

Antenna array provides cellular-like coverage

of large metropolitan area.

ATM switch can be used as the backbone of

the network and it offers multimedia traffic types with end to end QOS expectations. Hence it is used instead of IP switch.

Onboard Network Hub

Carried in a large pod suspended from the

underbelly of the fuselage. Houses the antenna array which creates hundreds of contiguous virtual cells on the ground to serve thousands of users.

Subscriber Terminals
Broadband facilities are provided through

Customer Premise Equipment(CPE) to home and small offices. Business Premise Equipment(BPE) for business purposes.

It can also be connected with non-HALO

networks like ATM networks, ISPs, etc. To provide facilities to remote areas, Halo Gateways are used.


Rapid Buildout

A HALO Network can be put into operation within weeks. Upon network activation, it provides service to the full super metropolitan area.

High Signal Quality and Availability

At frequencies above 20 GHz, where wireless broadband services are being licensed, high losses of signals are caused . The high viewing angles to HALO aircraft (20 degrees or greater) assure signal paths free of absorbing objects. The combination of a large aperture and high signal power utilized by the HALO Network allows service availability in regions with high rainfall rates.

High Bandwidth
The initial capacity of the network will be on the scale of 10 Gb/s, with growth beyond 100 Gb/s. This enables services including but not limited to T1 access, ISDN access, Web browsing, high-resolution videoconferencing, large file transfers, offsite training and Ethernet LAN bridging.

Low Cost

Negligible ground infrastructure, coupled with a large footprint and multi-megabit-per-second data rates make it extremely competitive on a $/bit/square mile basis.

Advantages Over Terrestrial Networks

Does not require complex geometries involving many base stations interlinked by cabling or microwaves.

Unlike terrestrial networks, reengineering of

the entire satellite network may not be required to increase the system capacity.

High look angle preventing signal fading.

Advantages Over Satellite Networks

Satellite networks require more expensive terminals with high power to achieve the same data rates possible through the HALO Network. The capacity of a satellite network can be increased only by adding more satellites, which is very expensive.
Unlike satellite systems, which are multi-billion dollar investments, the HALO Network can be financed one market at a time, which makes it more suitable for developing countries.

The HALO aircraft is 10 to 1,000 times closer to the user than a satellite, with 10 times the available electrical power. Consequently, the

HALO Network can allocate significant capacity directly to densely populated regions.
The central node, can be routinely serviced

for optimal performance, and be steadily enhanced with emerging technologies.

Any Disadvantages???

The HALO network has already been deployed in certain parts of USA by Angel Technologies Inc.

Skystation has designed unmanned heliumfilled blimps (called "vehicles" or "aerostats") that can be used for a variety of applications,

one of which is telecommunications/Internet access. Aerovironment has teamed up with NASA on a solar-powered, unmanned plane that would work like the HALO network

Q & A