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November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
Submission Title: Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology Date Submitted: November 11, 2003 Source: John Lampe, Zbigniew Ianelli Company: Nanotron Technologies Address: Alt-Moabit 61, 10555 Berlin, Germany Voice: +49 30 399 954 135, FAX: +49 30 399 954 188, E-Mail: j.lampe@nanotron.com Re: Discussion of interesting RF technology Abstract: Tutorial Presentation on CSS for IEEE 802 part 1 Purpose: November Plenary Tutorial #4. Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15.

Submission

Slide 1

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology

presented by

Zbigniew Ianelli
Nanotron Technologies GmbH Berlin, Germany www.nanotron.com
Submission Slide 2 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Contents
A brief history of Chirp pulses Characteristics of Chirp pulses The basic Chirp signal Properties of signal forms Scalable technology How to code using CSS Key Properties of CSS

Submission

Slide 3

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

A brief history of Chirp pulses


Used by whales and dolphins Patent for radar applications in 1944 by Prof. Hoffmann Further developed by Sidney Darlington (Lifetime IEEE Fellow) in 1947 (Pulse Compression Radar) Patented by Canon for data transmission in fiber optic systems Chirp Spread Spectrum for commercial wireless data transmission is investigated since 1997

Submission

Slide 4

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Characteristics of Chirp pulses


A chirp pulse is a frequency modulated pulse.
Its duration is T; within this time the frequency is changing in a monotonic manner from a lower value to a higher one (Up-Chirp) or reverse (Down-Chirp). The difference between these two frequencies is a good approximation for the bandwidth B of the chirp pulse.

S(f)

B
Spectrum of the chirp pulse with bandwidth B and a roll-off factor of 0.25 Up-Chirp in the time domain (roll-off factor 0.25)

Submission

Slide 5

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

The basic Chirp signal


Chirp pulse:
U0 t 2 U (t ) cos( 0t ) 2 BT

Sinc pulse (baseband):


U (t ) U 0 sin(Bt) Bt

Sinc pulse (RF band):


U (t ) U 0 sin(Bt) cos( 0t ) Bt

Submission

Slide 6

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Properties of signal forms in the air and baseband interfaces


Chirp pulses for the RF channel: High robustness (BT>>1) Wideband signal Constant envelope of the RF waveform Constant, uniform PSD (Power Spectral Density) well controlled spectrum in very simple way Sinc pulses in the baseband: High speed (B=1) Easy signal processing (threshold detector)

Submission

Slide 7

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Scalable Technology
Frequency spreading:
Basic information theory tells us that CSS benefits when the bandwidth B of the Chirp pulse is much higher than the data rate R: B >> R

Time spreading:
The data rate can scale independently of the BT product. The duration T of the Chirp pulse can be chosen freely. A signal with a very high BT product can be achieved, which transforms into a very robust signal in the channel.
Submission Slide 8 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Scalable Technology (continued)


Excellent range data rate scalability:
Preferred for system where range and/or data rate requirement varies rapidly.

Especially promising for wideband or ultra wideband system where available frequency bandwidth B is much higher than the data rate R

Submission

Slide 9

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

How to code using CSS


Modulation techniques:
On-Off-Keying (OOK), for example: Up-Chirp = 1; Null = 0 allows 2 independent coexisting networks
f fHI fLO

1 0 1 0 0 1
t

Superposed Chirps (4 possible states):


Chirp pulse

Null/Up-Chirp/Down-Chirp/ Superposition of Up- and Down-Chirp allows one network with double the data rate
Submission Slide 10

OOK with Null and Up-Chirp

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Key Properties of CSS


High robustness:
Due to the high BT product, chirp pulses are very resistant against disturbances.

Multipath resistant:
Due to the broadband chirp pulse, CSS is very immune against multipath fading; CSS can even take advantage of RF echoes.

Low power consumption:


CSS allows the designer to choose an analog implementation, which often consumes much less power.

Low latency:
CSS needs no synchronization; a wireless connection can be established very quickly.
Submission Slide 11 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Mobility Properties of CSS


Resistance against Doppler effect:
The Doppler effect causes a frequency shift of the chirp pulse, which introduces a negligible shift of the baseband signal on the time axis. Example: Bandwidth of the chirp Duration of the chirp Center frequency of the chirp (ISM band) Relative speed between transmitter and receiver Frequency shift due to Doppler effect Equivalent shift of the message on the time axis
Note: 2000 km/h is equivalent to 1243 miles/hour
Submission Slide 12 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

80 MHz 1 s 2.442 GHz 2000 km/h 4.52 kHz 56.5 ps

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Coexistence Properties of CSS


Immune to in-band interferer:
Scalable processing gain (determined by BT product of the chirp) enables selection of appropriate immunity level against in-band interferences. Example: Bandwidth B of the chirp Duration time T of the chirp Center frequency of the chirp (ISM band) Processing gain, BT product of the chirp Eb/N0 at detector input (BER=0.001) In-band carrier to interferer ratio (C/I @ BER=0.001)

64 MHz 1 s 2.442 GHz 18 dB 14 dB -4 dB

Submission

Slide 13

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Some Applications and Measurements of Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology

presented by

John Lampe
Nanotron Technologies GmbH Berlin, Germany

www.nanotron.com
Submission Slide 14 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

New Applications / Global Markets


Applications requiring mobility faster than 11 mph, such as:
Tire pressure Assets in vehicles (in-car communications) Drive-by
Drop boxes Drive-by AMR

Toll booths

Applications requiring robustness or fewer retransmissions in multipath environments, such as:


Industrial mission-critical Airplanes Ships / engine rooms Gaming New WINA alliance one example of this need Asset tracking (active RFID) Personnel tracking Motion detection Automatic network installation
Slide 15 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

Applications requiring ranging accuracy better than 0.5 meters, such as:

Submission

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Enhanced Applications / Markets


Applications desiring extended range, such as:
Meter Reading Building Automation And other longer-range applications where repeaters are not practical

Submission

Slide 16

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Evaluation Board
Includes:
RF IC SAW filter Optimized balun for asymmetrical antenna operation Crystals
Submission Slide 17 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Comparing CSS to DECT Outdoors


CSS vs. DECT
1,00E+00 CSS 1,00E-01 DECT

1,00E-02

BER

1,00E-03

1,00E-04

1,00E-05

1,00E-06 0 100 200 300 400 500 Distance [m] 600 700 800 900 1000

Submission

Slide 19

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Indoor testing with CSS

Result: d = 23 m with Pout = -15 dBm Calculated: d = 50 m with Pout = +10 dBm, a = 3
Submission Slide 20 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Indoor testing with CSS


d=5 m, Pout = -30 dBm= 1 W, G = 1,5 dB, BER = 10-4

Load-bearing Walls CSS transmits 1Mbps with Pout = 1 W over 5m and with 6,3mW over 26m
Submission Slide 21 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Outdoor Link-Budget
Link budget without cable losses or antenna-gain, best case: LBbest = 103 dB
Out door-Propagat ion, a = 2,1
120

Outdoor free space propagation: distance ~ linkbudget with a = 2.1 2.3 But: Outdoor propagation is not always free space propagation, due to e.g. hills, trees, houses, Therefore: Measurements have to be done!
Submission

110

100

attenuation [dB] for outdoor

90 d1( r ) 103 80

d = 940 m

70

60

50

40

500

1000

1500 r

2000

2500

3000

m distance between transmitter and receiver

Slide 22

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Testing CSS on Hahneberg, Berlin-Spandau


P2

P3

340410 m P1 462610 m 73910 m P4 94010 m Ref

Submission

Slide 23

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Outdoor testing with CSS


P2

P3

340410 m P1 73910 m Pout = 7 dBm = 5 mW

462610 m Pout = 24 dBm = 250 mW


P4

Ref

94010 m Pout = 9 dBm = 7.9 mW

Submission

Slide 24

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Outdoor testing with CSS


Measurement Challenge: Teufelsberg
6483 m distance 7.7 dBm output power 18 dB antenna gain No FEC

BER 10E-3
Submission Slide 25 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

CSS Outdoor Test Summary


Outdoor-Propagation; a = 2.1
130 120

Pout = 30 dBm, d = 9.8 km

110

Pout = 26 dBm, d = 6.4 km


Pout = 7 dBm, d = 740 m Pout = 9 dBm, d = 940 m

100
attenuation [dB] for outdoor

d1( r ) 101 90 103 120 80 124 70

Gant = 1 dB

Output Power @ antenna


7 dBm = 5 mW
9 dBm = 7.9 mW 26 dBm = 400 mW 30 dBm = 1
Submission

Range @ BER=10-3
740 m
940 m 6400 m 9800 m

60

50

40 0.01

0.1 r

10

Slide 26

km distance between transmitter and receive

Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Need for Standardization

Ole Ploug R&D Manager Central Controls R&D Refrigeration and Air Conditioning www.danfoss.com
Submission Slide 27 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Summary
Introduced CSS technology Explained behavior and benefits Suggested some additional applications that can be satisfied Shown test results that demonstrate some of CSS capabilities Shown one customers application requirements
Submission Slide 28 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron

November 2003

doc.: IEEE 802.15-03-0460-00-0000

Conclusions
CSS has qualities of both spread spectrum and UWB. CSS enhances robustness and range CSS adds mobility CSS can be implemented with todays technologies CSS is a global solution
Submission Slide 29 Lampe, Ianelli, Nanotron