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GPRS Over View

From:R. N Sharma DE(GSM & IN) Faculty ALTTC GZB

What are various Generations of Mobile? GPRS is in which category?


Ist Mobile Telephone service was launched in 1946 at St. Louis. In 1970 Bell Lab Invent Cellular Concept 1G:-Analog(AMPS,NMT) 2G:-Voice Only(GSM,CDMA,DAMPS) 3G:-High Speed Data & Voice(EDGE,CDMA2000,WCDMA)

GPRS is 2.5 G

Data Rates:GSM:-2G(Second Generation):-13 Kbps GPRS:-2.5G have 4 different coding scheme


1. CS1 :-9.05Kbps 2. CS2:-13.4Kbps 3. CS3:-15.6Kbps 4. CS4:-21.4Kbps So,Max theoretical data rate in case of GPRS is approximately 171 Kbps EDGE:-MCS1:-8.8Kbps MCS9:-59Kbps

Circuit Switching GSM:-Circuit switching GPRS:-Packet Switching

Packet Switching

Circuit Switching

Packet Switching

End to End Connection Required. End to End Connection Not Required. Recourses reserve during call. Recourses reserve on demand. 30-40% utilisation of recourses. Good utilisation of recourses. Charging on the basic of Time. Charging on the basic of Volume.

General Packet Radio System


Reserve recourses when data is to be transmit or receive High Speed data transmission/reception. Sharing of Resources. Move toward 3G. More then 1TS may allocate to Subscriber
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

GPRS efficiently utilize the network

Idle Mode
GPRS Detached

Ready Data is being Transfer

Stand By Registered but data not transferring

BTS CCU

BSC
PCU
MSC

HLR

AUC

B G

SGSN

GGSN

DHCP

LIG

BG

CG

BSNL

GPRS Architecture
PSTN MSC BSC PCU MS
SGSN
GPRS GGSN Network

Intranet

GGSN

Internet

Radius Server

Charging Gateway

WAP Server

Mediation

Billing

BSNL

GPRS Components
To ensure the interworking of the PLMN, PDN and the wireless networks (GSM or TDMA), two new major components are required. These components are called GPRS Support Nodes. There are two types of GPRS Support Nodes
1. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) 2. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

SGSN: Ciphering of GPRS data Data Compression Authentication Mobility Management Charging Connection with NSS

Protocol conversion

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)


Service access point for the mobile station Main functions
Mobility management Registration Authentication

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)


Interacts with the mobile for
packet data flow And related functions like compression and ciphering Protocols like SNDCP(Sub-network dependent convergence protocol) and LLC(logical link control) GTP(Gateway tunnelling protocol for GTP tunnelling to other support nodes

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)

BSNL

An SGSN delivers packets to mobile stations within its service area. SGSNs send queries to Home Location Registers (HLRs) to obtain profile data of GPRS subscribers. SGSNs detect new GPRS mobile stations in a given service area; and, finally, SGSNs process registration of new mobile subscribers and keep a record of their location inside a given service area.

GGSN: Allocate IP Charging Connect to External Network

SGSN

Tunnel

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)


GGSN connected to SGSN on one side and to outside world external networks such as Internet and X.25 A gateway it functions as a wall for these external networks to protect the GPRS network Data form external network, after verification of address forwarded to the SGSN Routes packets received from the mobile to the correct network. Acts as a router

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)


GGSNs are used as interfaces to external PDNs. GGSNs maintain routing information that is necessary to tunnel the Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to the SGSNs that service particular mobile stations. Other functions include network and subscriber screening and address mapping. One or more GGSNs may support multiple SGSNs.

BSNL

BSNL

GPRS Network Enhancements


In addition to the new GPRS components, existing GSM and TDMA network elements must also be enhanced in order to support GPRS. The following two pieces of equipment must be enhanced:
Base Station System (BSS): must be enhanced to recognize and send user data to the SGSN that is serving the area. Home Location Register (HLR): must be enhanced to register GPRS user profiles and respond to queries originating from SGSNs regarding these profiles.

Border Gateway
Interconnects different GPRS operators backbones Facilitates GPRS roaming Uses standard IP router technology

Legal Interception Gateway


For use of the legal authorities Subscriber data and signalling can be intercepted

Domain Name System


Translation of the IP host names to IP addresses SGSN uses DNS to get GGSN and SGSN IP addresses

Packet Control Unit


New card implanted in the BSC to manage GPRS traffic Limitation in terms of the number of transceivers and base stations it can handle

13Kbps
260 Samples /20 Ms

22.8 Kbps
456 Samples /20 Ms

Speech Coding

Channel Coding

Interleaving

Modulation

Ciphering

Burst Formation
33.8 Kbps

270 Kbps

33.8 Kbps

592 Samples /20 Ms 592 Samples /20 Ms

Channel Coder
50 132 78
3 Tail Bits 4 Tail Bits

1 To 2 Coder

456 Bits per 20ms

Thanks !!!