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Devanand, Sr.

Lecturer, GZSCET, Bathinda [Punjab]

A. External Guides:
1. Dr. S.M. Ishtiaque, Prof., Dept. of Textile Tech., IIT, Delhi
2. Dr. A Mukhopadhyay, Assistant Prof., Dept. of Textile Tech., NIT, Jalandhar

B. Internal Administrative Guide :

1. Dr. Gursharan Singh, Head, Dept. of Textile Engg., GZSCET, Bathinda

Modern consumers consider comfort one of the most important attributes. For survival in the market textile companies are searching the new kind of textile materials. Understanding and meeting consumer needs and desires. There is a need to develop a sound scientific understanding of the psychological perception of clothing comfort.

Comfort: State of satisfaction indicating physiological, psychological and physical balance among the wearer of the clothing in relation to environment. Comfort can be defined as a a state of multiple interaction of physical, physiological and psychological factor.

Aspects of wear comfort:

Thermo-physiological: Concerns the heat and moisture transport properties. Helps to maintain balance of the body during various levels of activity.

Skin sensational wear comfort: It is mainly related to fabrics mechanical properties, handle and surface characteristics of the fabric. Psychological Comfort: Consumer prejudice, colour and prevalent fashion generally influence this aspect.

The clothing comfort depends upon: the low stress mechanical, thermal and moisture transfer properties of the fabrics. There is a general agreement that the movement of heat and moisture transport properties- most important factor in clothing comfort. Thermo physiological comfort means that the ambient body temperature of ~37C is maintained under different environmental conditions & different work rates During the rest, most surplus body heat is lost by conduction and radiation, whereas during physical activity, the dominant means of loosing excess body heat is by evaporation of perspiration.

Constant core temperature is partially achieved by the cooling effect of the evaporation of sweat from the skin. Even small deviations from normal skin and core temperature can cause discomfort and reduction in performance. The loss of water vapour through clothing is fundamental for heat balance of the body and comfort.

Fabric provides barrier to water vapour passage.Liquid moisture in formed by condensation of water vapour and, the sensation of discomfort is increased, partially from a feeling of clamminess and partly because the wet clothing clings

High functional fabric in leisurewear satisfy many characteristics :

1. Optimum heat and moisture regulation, 2. Good moisture absorption and 3. Moisture conveyance capacity (depend upon wicking characteristics of material), 4. Air permeability and, 5. Thermal characteristics depending on the wearing situation, 6. Quick drying of fabric (to prevent catching cold), 7. Shape retention even under wet condition, durability etc

In extreme climatic situation, functional performance of textile material becomes more demanding. The properties of any fabric produced depend on the constituent fibre materials, yarn type, fabric structure and how all these factors interact with each other.

Continuous efforts are made by many researchers to improve the comfort through engineering fibre and fibre assemblies. In one of the many efforts towards improving comfort, the fabrics are made using hallow yarn. The fabric is expected to: provide greater thermal insulation, absorb more body extrusions and helps in transporting moisture from body .

There is a report of using hollow yarn in the manufacturing of Active sportswear, Towel (including general towel, baby towel and towel blankets), knit fabric sector (active sportswear, sweaters, womens underwear, hosiery, caps and diapers). Hollow yarn is reported to provide greater softness and bulkiness without affecting the strength and elongation of the product.

Spinning of hollow yarn using friction spinning followed by the study related to its physical parameters, are available in the literature.

However, there is no study related to thermo-physiological comfort of the fabric made out from hollow yarn. The extent of hollowness is of paramount importance from clothing comfort and also from economical consideration.

Based on the study of mechanical properties of hollow yarn, it was reported that polyvinyl alcohol content (PVA%) should not exceed 40% [15]. Since the hollow yarn entraps air inside its structure and the geometric nature of hollow yarn may assist in moisture transmission properties. The fabric composed of hollow yarn, is probably more appropriate for :

winter and leisure wear, and active wear particularly in cold and windy situation.

During the lifetime of a garment, fabric undergoes repeated number of laundering; therefore change in comfort properties of fabric with repeated laundering is also important to investigate. A detail study on the above aspect will reveal the impact of hollow yarn on heat and moisture transfer properties of the fabric; which will in a way help in engineering fabric for better comfort.


To study the bulk and physical characteristics of hollow yarn composed of cotton fibres on sheath and PVA in the core before and after being dissolved. To study the impact of hollow yarn on heat and moisture transport properties of fabric. To analysis the influence of yarn structure on the thermophysiological comfort. To study the impact of laundering on the properties and performance of hollow yarn fabric.





Technical Programme / Conduct of Research:

Fabrication of apparatus Preparation of hollow yarn and conversion it to a fabric. Study the characteristics of hollow yarn and fabric Analyzing the structure and properties of the fabric in relation to thermal comfort.

Study the impact of laundering on the properties and performance of fabric.

Yarn samples and fabrics have been prepared in textile industries : Rishabh Spinning Mill,Jodhan, Ludhiana, & Sportsking, Ludhiana.

Testing will be done in : Fabricated instruments, Department of Textile Technology., NIT, Jalandhar, and Department of Textile Technology, IIT Delhi R & D Department, Sports King & R & D Department , VSGM, Ludhiana

Major Equipment / Lab WorkFacilities Needed:

Yarn manufacturing machine Fabric manufacturing machine Single Yarn Strength Tester Evenness and Hairiness Tester Thermal conductivity tester Water vapour permeability tester Wicking tester etc.

Collaboration with:
1. Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi 2. National Institute of Technology (NIT), Jalandhar

Material & Method

Sample Preparation:

Yarn Sample: Ring Yarn Fabric Sample: Knitted, Single Jersey

Material Used:

Cotton: J-34, Staple Length:28.5 mm Filament yarn : PVA Filament,56.4 Den (94.2 Ne),21 filaments Staple Fibres: PVA Staple Fibres, 41mm

Material & Method



Core Yarn Ct : PVA= 80:20

Blend Yarn

Double Yarn

Single Roving Yarn

Ct : PVA=

Ct : PVA=

Double Roving Yarn

Single Roving Yarn

Double Roving Yarn

Single Roving Yarn

Double Roving Yarn

Single Roving Yarn

Double Roving Yarn

Material & Method

Table No. 1. Yarn Samples
Sample No
1 2 3 4 100% Cotton Carded -- do -Core Yarn ( Cotton 80%, PVA Filament 20%) -- do --


No of Roving Strand Used

Single Double Single Double

6 7 8

Blend Yarn ( Cotton 80%, PVA Staple Fibres 20%)

-- do -Double Yarn ( Cotton 80%, PVA Filament 20%) -- do --

Double Single Double

Note:1. Total Yarn Samples : 16 [ Before wash:08, After Wash:08]

2.Total Fabric Samples: 24 [ BW:08, AW:08, After Laundering:08]

Material & Method

Yarn Production Particulars:

Tracer Fibre : 0.3% [ 3 gms / Kg of cotton ] Roving Count : 0.70 & 1.40 Yarn TPI [ for both ] : about 18

Process: Mixing (J34 100%)

Blending Carding (LR C 1/3 ) Drawing (Br.H LR, DO6 and FH, LR RSB-851) S/F (MMC) R/F (LR) Winding ( M/c: Autoconer : Machint o Tesrite Savio, Espero, Italy with splicer) For double yarn Spl (7&8): Sample No.1 and No.2 yarns are used with 20 % PVA multifilament (56 den ) yarn . M/c used cheese winding and TFO.

100%Cotton Yarn & Blend Yarn using single and double roving

Core Yarn using single and double roving

Making Hollow Yarn Samples: PVA is soluble in water at 60C. The ring yarn re-winded on steel spring ( soft package) from cone then hot washed for 25 minutes in dyeing m/c. The water is extracted from the soft package by hydro extractor, and samples are dried in R/F Dryer.

For making fabric samples,

To produce single jersey knitted fabric, 100% cotton yarn, core yarn (Cotton and PVA) , blend yarn, and doubled yarns are used 24 Gauge, 16 inch dia. circular knitting m/c. After Wash (AW) fabric samples can be obtained by dissolving the PVA portion with boiling water. Laundered Samples are prepared by 6 laundering cycles in LG Fully Automatic Washing m/c as per ASTM Standared ( D13- 1950). 1.0 % solution of non-ionic detergent Hankel N.P. 95, !00%

Fabrication of Instrument:

For testing, heat and moisture transport properties of fabric, the instruments are not easily available. The instruments are very costly and require high skill.

Following instrument which are simple, low cost, and can easy operated and require lesser sample size are fabricated. i. Heat Resistance Tester ii. WVP Tester iii. Wicking Tester

1. Togmeter


Fabrication of Instruments

Tog Meter

Water Vapour Permeability Tester

Fabrication of Instruments
Wicking Tester

1. Linear density , Strength and its variation 2. Unevenness, Imperfections, and Hairiness 3. Yarn Structure 4. Yarn Packing Density

1. Thickness 2. Tightness factor, 3. Course / inch & Wales / inch, 4. Fabric Hand , 5. Air Permeability, 6. Heat Conductivity, 7. Water Wapour Permeability, 8. Wicking, 9. Effect of laundering on heat & moisture transport poperties.

1. Y. Li, The Science of Clothing Comfort, Textile Progress, 31, 1/2, pp 1-135, (2001). 2. Kighley, J.H., Breathable fabrics and comfort in clothing, Journal of coated fabrics,

15 (2), pp 89-104 (1985)

3. David, A.H, Performance characteristics of waterproof breathable fabrics, Journal of Industrial Textile, 29 (4) pp306-308 (2000) 4. Tanner, J.C. , Breathability, comfort and Gore-Tex Laminator, Journal of coated fabrics, 8 (4), pp 312-316 (1979) 5. Lomex, G.R., Breathable, Waterproof fabrics, Explained, Textiles (4), pp12-16 (1991). 6. Aonymous, WBF: healthy growth rate, But fiercer Competition, Textile Month, pp 23-25, January (1990)+ 7. Ruckman, J.E. and Ren, Y.J., The effect of condensation on water vapour transfer in waterproof breathable fabrics for clothing, International Journal of clothing Science & Technology., 12 (6), pp71-72 (2000) 8. Ruckman, J.E., Water vapour transfer in waterproof breathable fabrics under steady state condition, International Journal of clothing Science & Technology., 9 (1), pp10-22 (1997).

9. Haberstock,H., Special polyester yarn knitted fabric for sportswear with optimum functional and physiological properties, Milliand, pp E125-127 , April (1990), 10. Sule, A.D., Bardhan M. K. and Sarkar, R.K. , Development of Sportswear for Indian Conditions, Man Made Textiles in India, pp 123-129, April (2004) 11. Four Major Advantages Including Lightweight Kurabo Spinair, JTN, The International Textile Magazine, pp 38-38, September (1999). 12. High-Function Textiles, Asian Textile Business, pp30-32 December (2001). 13. A. A. Merati, M. Okamura, Hollow Yarn in Friction Spinning; Part I: Tensile Properties of Hollow Yarn, Textile Res. J., 70 ( 12 ), pp1070-1076 (2000). 14. A. A. Merati, M. Okamura, Hollow Yarn in Friction Spinning; Part II: Yarn Structure and Deformation under Axial Tension and Lateral Forces, Textile Res. J., 71 ( 5 ), pp454 458 (2001).

15. A. A. Merati, M. Okamura, Limits of Hollow Yarn in Friction Spinning, Textile Res. J., 2003, 73 ( 6 ), pp496 502 (2003).
16. Das A., Ishtiaque, SM, Yadav,P., Contribution of core and sheath components to the tensile properties of DREF-III yarn, Textile Research Journal.; 74 (2): pp134 - 139 (2004)