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Introduction to Clean Agent Systems

Where did we come from? How did we get here?

Halon 1301
In 1947 that research by the Purdue Research Foundation and the U.S. Army resulted in the discovery of two effective low toxicity Halons: 1211 and 1301. It was introduced as an effective total flooding gaseous fire suppression agent in the 1960s
aircraft, mainframe computers, telecommunication switching centers

Halon 1301 is also used in the F-16 fighter aircraft to prevent vapors in the fuel tanks from becoming explosive. Upon entering areas with possible unfriendly fire, Halon 1301is injected into the fuel tanks for one-time use.

Montreal Protocol
An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989. Approximately 196 states have currently signed it. The Montreal Protocol required that all production of new Halon cease by January 1, 1994. Recycled Halon and inventories produced before January 1, 1994, are now the only sources of supply.

Major Users of Halon 1301 Today

1 %

1% 1 1% 1

1% 1

US Millitary Areo Space Petro-Chem Telecom

1% 1


Note: Values shown above are estimated from Halon industry representatives. No data study was completed.

Support and Availability

Number of existing Installed Halon 1301 systems is not clear
HTOC report - Approx. 76,200 installed systems

Manufacturer support across all companies is waning Halon 1301 availability in future is uncertain.
Plentiful vs. limited supply (3 to 20 year supply?) Surplus from Europe sustaining current demand US base of Halon 1301 demand is consistent regardless of price per lb.

Major Halon 1301 alternative clean agents

Total flooding systems with distribution piping network
ASHRAE Name Trade Name HFC-111 ea FK-1111 - HFC-11 HFC-111 IG-11 IG-111 FM-111 Novec 1111 Fluid FE-11 ECARO-11 Argonite Inergen Manufacturer DuPont 1 M DuPont DuPont Kidde ANSUL

Understanding the Need for Clean Agents

Choosing the Kidde Engineered System

Business interruption Recent events prove proactive risk management saves money Cost of downtime often astronomical

System vs. Agent

Agent One component in the overall suppression (or protection) system Typically viewed as the most important component Often sole focus of decision making or specification creation

System vs. Agent

System Incorporates dozens of components Detection system(s) - Conventional / intelligent / HSSD / water / heat Control system(s) - Fire alarm / suppression release / monitoring Suppression system(s) - application specific

Total Flooding Suppression Systems

A system consisting of an agent supply and distribution network designed to achieve a minimum agent concentration through the hazard volume

Local Application Suppression Systems

A system consisting of a supply of extinguishing agent arranged to discharge directly on the burning material. Concept derived from NFPA-12: Carbon Dioxide Currently no Kidde Fire System carries approval or listing for Local Application
Design Challenges Approval Procedures

What are HALOCARBON Agents?

NFPA 2001: An agent that consists as primary components one or more organic compounds containing one or more of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. Typically heavier than atmosphere descending layer interface which requires room integrity to maintain concentration levels Electrically non-conductive HF production when in contact with a flame sheet Visible obscuration during discharge Most are suitable for Class A, B, and C Fires

What are INERT Gases?

NFPA 2001: An agent that contains as primary components one or more of the gases helium, neon, argon, or nitrogen. Inert gas agents that are blends of gases can also contain CO2 as secondary component Same density as the atmospherewill mix with the air and hold concentration levels Does not conduct electricity No toxic by-products when exposed to heat No visible obscuration during discharge or residue after discharge Suitable for Class A, B & C Hazards. Stored and a Vapor (Gas) Discharged as

Fire Protection At-A-Glance

Fire Classes
Class-A: Ordinary Combustibles Class-B: Flammable or Combustible Liquid or Gaseous Fuels Class-C: Energized Electrical Equipment Class-D: Metal Fires (Magnesium + Others) Class-K: Cooking Oils or Animal Fats

Defining Characteristics of a Fire

Flaming Smoldering Deep Seated

Fire Tetrahedron

People Safety
Cardiac Sensitization- The increased sensitivity of the heart to
adrenaline, leading to the sudden onset of irregular heartbeats and possibly heart attack

NOAEL No Observable Adverse Effects Level LOAEL Lowest Observable Adverse Effects Level PBPK Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

FM-200 Systems

FM-200 Agent
Heptafluoropropane (C3HF7 ) HFC-227ea Modes of Fire Protection
Primary: Flame Cooling Minor: Chemical Inhibition

FM-200 People Safety

NFPA 2001, 2008 Edition Allows Use of FM-200 As Follows: In Normally Occupied Spaces
Concentrations up to 10.5% v/v. Maximum exposure time is no more than 5min. In Normally Not Occupied Spaces - Concentrations up to 10.5% v/v - Concentrations exceeding 10.5% v/v provide occupants can evacuate within 30 seconds - Lock-out valve, - Mechanical time delay, - Pressure operated siren and - Signage required

FM-200 People Safety

FM-200 is So safe, It has been Designated as a replacement propellant in medical inhalers.

FM-200 and the Environment

FM-200 is a responsible choice by any measure: Zero Ozone Depletion Potential Low Atmospheric Lifetime Efficient Use of Resources Fixed Fire Protection is Essentially Non-Emissive

FM-200 Applications
Telecommunications Data Centers Computer rooms Clean Rooms Process Facilities Etc

FM-200 Strengths
Cylinder storage space Rapid discharge time Rapid extinguishment People Safety Equipment Safety Field Recharge ADS flexible design Proven all over the world!

FM-200 Weaknesses
Agent cost ECS System design constraints Perceived environmental footprint

Kidde FM-200 Offering

ADS Series ECS Series

Kidde Engineered Fire Suppression System

Designed for Use with 3M Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid

Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid 3M has long history in clean fire protection industry
Novec 1230 fluid is an advanced halon replacement, designed to balance industry concerns for human safety, performance and the environment.

Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid Halon 1301 and halon 1211 replacement Unique physical properties Balanced protection for your assets and employees
Performance Health and safety Environmental profile

3M Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid

Fluoroketone Introduced in 2003, at NFPA CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2 Modes of Fire Protection
Primary: Flame Cooling Minor: Chemical Inhibition

Product Awareness
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Novec 1230 fluid? Liquid to a vapor at discharge? HF Generation - Yes What is a Fluoroketone? Liquid pooling after discharge - Low temp cylinders / Low temp enclosures Low odorYes Filling by gravity Proceed with caution

Novec 1230: Environmental Profile

EPA SNAP/NFPA 2001 standard Design concentrations well below safety thresholds Clean environmental profile

- GWP = 1; ATM life = 5 days

Liquid at room temperature low Pv No residue Electrically non-conductive

NOVEC 1230 People Safety

NFPA 2001, 2008 Edition Allows Use of NOVEC 1230 As Follows: In Normally Occupied Spaces
Concentrations up to >>10.0% v/v. Maximum exposure time is no more than 5min. In Normally Not Occupied Spaces - Concentrations up to >>10.0 v/v - Concentrations exceeding >>10.0% v/v provide occupants can evacuate within 30 seconds - Lock-out valve, - Mechanical time delay, - Pressure operated siren and - Signage required

Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid Strengths Novec 1230 fluid benefits
Completely safe and approved for use in occupied spaces Best environmental profile of all active agent Halon alternatives Provides minimum business interruption with maximum asset protection Ease of transportation

Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid Strengths

Bulk transport Low vapour pressure (6 Psig) bulk air travel

Offered in
11 lb Demo Container, 661 lb Drums 2425 lb totes

Key Applications
Pharmaceutical / Healthcare Data processing centers Telecommunications
Cell sites, switching centers

Oil and gas

Museum & cultural heritage Any environmentally sensitive market or end user

The Kidde Engineered System

Available Sizes:

10, 20, 40, 70 lb.

-Vertical only

125, 200, 350 lb. 600 and 900 lb.

The Kidde System Limits - Compared

Sapphire Vs. Kiddes engineered system Kidde Operating Temperature Maximum Cylinder Size Nozzle Coverage Min Nozzle Pressure 32 to 130 F 910 lbs 35.5 x 35.5 61 psig Sapphire 32 to 130 F 850 lbs 32 x 32 73 psig

The Kidde System Limits - Compared

Sapphire Vs. Kiddes engineered system Kidde Nozzle Height % Agent in Pipe Arrival Time Run-out Time 16 ft. 100% 2.0 sec 6.3 sec Sapphire 14 ft. 80% 1.0 sec 2.0 sec

Kidde FE-13

Trifluoromethane (CHF3) HFC-23 Modes of Fire Protection
Primary: Flame Cooling Minor: Chemical Inhibition Minor: Oxygen Reduction

Boiling point = -115.7F (-82.0C) Vapor pressure = 686 PSIA @ 77F

FE-13 Agent Characteristics

High Pressure
Low boiling point = wide temp range High velocity = expansion - Large spaces - High ceilings - Clutter

FE-13 People Safety

NOAEL = 30% LOAEL = >30% Typical use concentration = 18% Large safety margin
Tough hazards - mixed flammables Variables Inerting

FE-13 and the Environment

ODP = ZERO HGWP = 5.7 The EPA SaysHFC-23 is Acceptable as a Halon 1301 substitute. Since HFC-23 is ... a by-product of manufacturing ... EPA is allowing the use of this agent wherever applicable given technical or market considerations.

FE-13 Applications
Mixed flammables Forensic Evidence storage Rail locomotives Mining vehicles Rooms with variable fill capacity Rooms with extremes in temperature Inerting

North Slope of Alaska

Low temperature Inerting Large, cluttered spaces Difficult egress

North Slope of Alaska

FE-13 Strengths
Flexible design High ceilings (25 ft) with one tier of nozzles Inerting applications Safety margin for people exposure Design temperature limits

FE-13 Weaknesses
Cylinder storage space requirements Perceived environmental issues Relative cost of system
high pressure system (piping, cylinders etc)

Recharge capability


Two commonly, commercially available Inert gases Mixture of naturally occurring gases: IG-55
Nitrogen Argon Carbon Dioxide 50% 50% 0%

52% 40% 8%

Features of Argonite Agent

No decomposition products Clean, naturally occurring gases Electrically non-conductive Effective against Class A, B and C fires

How Does it Work?

Extinguishes through physical means Reduces enclosures O2 concentration Safe for people

Determining Human Safety

No Observable Adverse Effects Level Lowest Observable Adverse Effects Level

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Residual Oxygen% N OAEL/LOAEL %

Human Safety/Design Concentration Design Concentration vs. NOAEL/LOAEL

1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1 %

1 .1 1% 1 .1 1% 1 .1 1% 1 .1 1%

Class A

Class B



Oxygen Depletion Potential (ODP): Global Warming Potential (GWP): Atmospheric Lifetime (ALT): 0 0 0

Agent Listings/Approvals
IG-55 (Argonite) agent carries health and safety approvals in many countries and is on the US EPA SNAP list.

The marketer of IG-541 claims that the CO2 in the mix of their product enhances the bodys ability to assimilate Oxygen by increasing a persons respiration rate and the bodys ability to absorb Oxygen. The marketers of IG-55 claim that CO2 is not required to help a person breathe in a >12% O2 environment, as concentration levels are below the NOAEL. US EPA position

Argonite Applications

Markets for Argonite

Environmentally sensitive end-users/industries

Benefits of Argonite Agent

A truly green agent A safe work environment Readily available Easy to mix Longer hold time

Benefits of Argonite System

Air tight enclosure not required No agent related downtime Cost-effective system

Argonite Weaknesses
Large cylinder footprint/storage Pressure relief venting High pressure hardware/piping costs

Large Scale Argonite System

Features of Argonite System

Multiple release modes Selector Valve option reduces costs Operating Temperature: -20F to +130F

System Listings/Approvals
Factory Mutual Research Corporation Underwriters Laboratories of Canada

Argonite Summary
Argonite should not be marketed as a direct competitor of FM-200. Argonite is an environmentally friendly alternative and a welcome addition to our portfolio.

FE-25 (HFC-125)

Rumors to the next best clean agent

Its a drop in replacement for 1301 Its better It is very green It does everything Its cheaper It can . . .

Some History
In the early 90s there were a lot of births One was named FE25 At birth FE-25s parents said:
the higher concentrations required to effectively extinguish fires can, based on our recently completed testing, lead to cardiac sensitization problems. Therefore, FE-25 (HFC-125) is no longer considered a viable alternative for Halon 1301 in occupied spaces. Dupont Fire Extinguishants News, Volume 1, No.3, Fall 1992

Some interesting facts

The exact same chemical that was introduced in the early 90s It can be used now because of change in NFPA standards It can be used on Class A fires in occupied spaces It can not be used on Class B fires in occupied spaces It can be used as a drop in replacement for 1301 in very limited circumstances

FE-25 Strengths
It uses less agent, for Class A hazards, than is necessary with FM-200 It is UL Listed and FM Approved

FE-25 Weaknesses
Single source supplier Toxicological issues Field recharge capability Liability issues

Fire Protection Fluid Summaries

Metric Novec 1230 HFC-227ea HFC-125 Inert Gas

Design Conc.








ATM life

5 days

36.5 yrs

32.6 yrs


Vapor P

6 psi

44 psi

165 psi

2250 psi

Design Concentration Vs. Toxicity

Trade Name Halon 1301 FM-200 FE-13 Novec 1230 FE-25 Min. Design Concentration 5.00 6.25 18.0 4.20 8.00 NOAEL 5.0 9.0 30.0 >10.0 7.5 LOAEL 7.5 10.5 >30.0 >10.0 10.0

Note: All Concentration levels are % v/v

The Importance of the Kidde Fire Systems Brand

Kidde Fire Systems,

The world leader in providing total system solutions for special hazard fire protection, offers a comprehensive portfolio of detection, notification, suppression and control products that can be tailored to fit specific applications.

Kidde Fire Systems

Kidde Fire Systems products can be found protecting industries around the world, such as: mining, marine, power, oil and gas, manufacturing, semiconductor, commercial cooking, education, cultural and heritage, service and timber and wood. Kidde Fire Systems has decades of experience in the fire protection industry and has become one of the most recognized brands in fire protection today.

Support distribution Review and reinforce systems approach Synergy of detection and suppression Reinforce sales strategies around all Kidde products

Systems Approach
Complete Kidde systems
Detection (smoke, heat and water) Controls & monitoring Suppression

One source system

Manufacturer and distributor

Total solutions expertise

Proactively sell solutions Enhance, strengthen and grow relationships and contacts Enhance knowledge of products Integrate products seamlessly Enhance knowledge of competition

Choosing the Kidde Engineered System

Proactive / supplemental code compliance Minimum CC often not sufficient Due diligence crucial Water based systems = fire control = structural protection Waterless systems = operational and asset protection

Choosing the Kidde Engineered System

Asset protection Value of High value assets grows annually Capital expenditures require supplemental protection

Choosing the Kidde Engineered System

Environmental stewardship Zero ozone depletion Near zero GWP ATM life in days, not years

Benefits Early notification & response Reduce smoke (or other incipient) damage Automatic suppression actuation Options Application specific Performance criteria Orion, conventional, smart, spot and linear heat, water

Challenges Specifications calling for suppression release from air sampling

Controls & Monitoring

Conventional panels

Smart systems Aries

Suppression Agent options

FM-200 Novec 1230 Argonite FE-13 CO2

Suppression System Options

Super-pressurized with Nitrogen ECS FM-200 Novec1230 Systems Self-pressurized FE-13 Systems CO2 Systems Argonite


ADS FM-200

Advantages of complete Kidde system to end users Single source provider Specifiable Cost savings to end user Enhanced reliability & compatibility No service responsibility questions Complete warranty coverage

Disadvantages of multi-part solution to end users Multiple equipment manufacturers More cost and time Poor reliability & compatibility Multiple service providers Little or no warranty coverage Poor response during difficulty (lots of finger pointing)

Advantages of complete Kidde solution to Customer Trust and credibility Engineering expertise Training experience and future training costs Less inventory Reduced administrative costs Warranty support

Industry Websites

Questions? - Comments? Discussions?

The End