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2 The Circulatory
What is the use of circulatory

 To transport nutrients and oxygen to

cells and carries waste materials
away from cells
Components of circulatory system
 Three major components:
2. Blood – connective tissues made up
of liquid plasma, suspended blood
cells and platelets
3. Heart – muscular pump that circulate
4. Blood vessels – consist of arteries,
capillaries and veins
1. Blood and haemolymph
 Blood – medium of transport in
human and animals
 Haemolymph – blood-like nutritive
fluid that fills the entire body cavity
or haemoceal and surround the cell
of arthropods (insects)
The functions of blood
 Transport oxygen from the lungs to
the cell and carbon dioxide from the
cells to the lungs
 Regulate the pH of body fluid, body
temperature and water content of
 Blood clot protect the body against
excessive blood loss
 Protect the body against diseases
The functions of haemolymph
 Transport water, inorganic salts and
organic compounds throughout the
 Do not transport respiratory gases
The composition of blood
 55% plasma and 45% cellular
 Plasma – main transport medium
 Constituent of plasma – water
(90%), ions, plasma proteins
(albumin, fibrinogen and
immunoglobulins), hormones and
dissolve substances (nutrient, waste
product and respiratory gases)
Major functions of constituents in plasma
Cellular components of

a. Erythrocytes c. Leucocytes

b. Platelets/Thrombocytes
Cellular components of the
a. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
 Biconcave shape (thinner at the centre than
at the edge)
 Does not have a nucleus
 7.5 micrometre (μm) in diameter
 Biconcave shape and small size provides
large surface area to volume
 Function – helps in gaseous exchange
 Contains haemoglobin (oxygen carrying
protein pigment) which give the red colour
 Haemoglobin contains haem group which
contain iron atom  the site of oxygen
 Lifespan – 120 days, destroyed in liver and
spleen, manufactured in bone morrow
b. Leucocytes (white blood cells)
 Colourless and have a nucleus
 Larger than red blood cells
 Classified into 2 types:

4. Granulocytes – Neutrophils,
Eosinophils & Basophils
5. Agranulocytes – Lymphocytes &
 Make less than 1% of the blood’s
 Made up of stem cells in bone morrow
 Function:

- Fight infection
- Neutrophils and Monocytes  digest
bacteria and dead cells
- Eosinophils  release enzymes that
combat inflammation in allergic
reaction and kill parasitic worms
- Basophils  combating inflamatory and
allergic reactions
- Lympocytes  produce immune system
against foreign substances
c. Platelets/Thrombocytes
 Cellfragments from the bone
 Function – involved in the process of
blood clotting
Test Yourself
1. What is the use of circulatory
2. How many components in the
circulatory system of human?
3. Give one example of plasma and
give the function.
4. What are the cellular components
of blood?