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Chapter 10

Improving Performance Through Empowerment,


s
Teamwork, and Communication
G o al
r n i ng Describe the factors that cause
Lea 6 conflict in teams and how to
Describe why & how organizations manage conflict.
1
empower employees.
7 Explain the importance and
Distinguish among the five types of process of effective
2 communication.
teams in the workplace.

3 Identify the characteristics of an 8 Compare the different types of


effective team. communication.

4 Summarize the stages of team 9 Explain external


development. communication and how
to manage a public crisis.
Relate cohesiveness and norms to
5
effective team performance.
EMPOWERING EMPLOYEES
Empowerment Giving employees authority and
responsibility to make decisions about their work
without traditional managerial approval and control.

Sharing Information and Decision-Making


Authority
• Ways to empower employees:

• Keeping them informed about company’s financial


performance.

• Giving them broad authority to make workplace


decisions that implement a firm’s vision and its
competitive strategy.
Linking Rewards to Company Performance
Employee Stock Ownership Plans

• 10 million workers at 11,500 companies participate.


• Gives employees ownership, motivating them to work
smarter and harder.
Stock Options

• Right to buy a specified amount of company stock at a


given
price within a given time period.
• Being offered more and more to employees at all
different
levels.
TEAMS
Team Group of employees who are committed to a common
purpose, approach, and set of performance goals.

• Hold selves mutually responsible and accountable


for accomplishing objectives.

• Ability to work on teams often emphasized during


the hiring process.

Work team A group of people with complementary skills


who are committed to a common purpose.

• Two-thirds of U.S. firms currently use them.


TEAM CHARACTERISTICS

Team Size
• Can range widely, but most have fewer than 12
members.

• Research says ideal size is often six or seven


members.

Team Level and Team Diversity


Team level Average level of ability, experience,
personality, or any other factor on a team.

Team diversity Variances or differences in ability,


experience, personality, or any other factor on a
team.
Stages of Team Development
Team Cohesiveness and Norms
Team cohesiveness Extent to which team members feel
attracted to the team and motivated to remain part of
it.

• Typically increases when members interact


frequently, share common attitudes and goals, and
enjoy being together.

• Cohesive teams quickly achieve high levels of


performance and consistently perform better.

Team norm Informal standard of conduct shared by team


members that guides their behavior.

• Can be positive or negative.


Team Conflict
Conflict Antagonistic interaction in which one party
attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of
another.

• Cognitive conflict focuses on problem-related


differences
of opinion

• Reconciling these differences strongly improves


team
performance.

• Affective conflict refers to the emotional reactions


that
can occur when disagreements become personal rather
than professional.
THE IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
Communication Meaningful exchange of information through
messages.
• Managers spend 80 percent of their time in direct
communication with others.
• Company recruiters rate effective communication as
the most important skill they’re looking for in
hiring new college graduates.
The Process of Communication
• All communication occurs in a situational or cultural
context.

• Communication in low-context cultures tends to


rely on explicit written and verbal messages.

• U.S., Switzerland, Germany, Austria

• Communication in high-context cultures depends


not only on the message itself but also on the
conditions that surround it, including nonverbal
cues,
past and present experiences, and personal
relationships between the parties.

• Japan, Latin America, India


Basic Forms of Communication
Listening Receiving a message and interpreting its
intended meaning by grasping the facts and feelings
it convey.

• Common listening behaviors:

• Cynical listening Receiver of a message feels that


the sender is trying to gain some advantage from the
communication.

• Offensive listening Receiver tries to catch the


speaker in a mistake or contradiction.

• Polite listening Receiver listens mechanically to


be polite rather than to communicate.

• Active listening Requires involvement with the


information and empathy with the speaker’s
situation; the basis for effective communication.
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION: CRISIS
MANAGEMENT
External communication Meaningful exchange of information
through messages transmitted between an organization
and its major audiences.

• Uses include:

• Keep operations functioning

• Maintain position in the marketplace

• Build customer relationships by supplying


information about topics such as product
modifications and price changes.

• Crisis management