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Seminar on solar power generation

Gagandeep 80701509002 Mandeep Singh 80701509006

Introduction

Solar thermal power system also known as concentrating solar power system use concentrated solar radiation as high temperature energy source to produce electricity using thermal route. In this process of conversion of solar energy into heat energy an incident solar irradiation is collected and concentrating solar collector or mirrors.

Solar collectors
Solar collector are used to produce heat from solar radiation. High temperature solar energy collectors are basically of three types; 1.parabolic trough system. 2.power tower system 3.parabolic dish system

Parabolic trough system

Parabolic trough system at the receiver can reach 400`c and produce steam for generating electricity Parabolic trough power plant are line focusing solar thermal electric power Trough system use the mirrored surface of linear parabolic concentrator to focus direct solar radiation on the absorber

Pipe running along the focal line of the parabola. The heat transfer fluid inside the absorber pipe is heated and pumped to the steam generator which in turn is connected to a steam turbine.

Power tower system


The reflected rays of the sun are always aimed at the receiver where temperature well above 1000c can be reached. A heliostat is a device that tracks the moment of the sun which is used to orient a mirror of field of mirrors throughout the day to reflect sun light onto a target receiver.

Parabolic dish system

Parabolic dish system can reach 1000c at the receiver and achieved the highest efficiencies for converting solar energy into electricity The parabolic system uses a parabolic dish shaped mirror or a modular mirror system that approximate a parabola and incorprate two axis tracking to fcous on the sunlight into receiver located at the focal point of the dish which absorber the energy and convert into thermal energy

Solar chimney

This is a fairly simply concept. The solar chimney has a tall chimney at the centre of the field which covered with glass. The solar heat generate hot air in the gap between the ground and the gall cover which is then passed through the central tower it is upper end due to density difference between relativly cooler air outside the upper end of the tower and hotter air inside tower.

Solar thermal power generation program of India


In India the first solar thermal power plant of 50kw capacity has been installed by MNES following the parabolic trough collector technology at Gwalpahari , Gurgaon A solar thermal power plant of 140mw at Mathania in Rajasthan has been proposed and sectioned by the government in Rajasthan

Photovoltaic

Semiconductor materials such as silicon are used in photovoltaic solar cells. In these cells incoming photons positive or negative charge carriers. This produce an electrical voltage and electrical current can be derive a load. Since solar cells are modular they can be assembled in unit of any size. An converts DC voltage to AC any feed at the solar power into the grid.

Solar thermal power plant

Of the various types of solar thermal power plant, parabolic torch and solar tower plants are described in more detail bellow. The trough collectors that make up trough power plant are large cylindrical parabolic mirror that concentrate that sunlight on a line focus several are these collectors are installed in row about a hundred meter long and the total solar field is composed of such parallel rows.

Area of operation

The areas where photovoltaic system and solar thermal power plant can operate overlap only an the narrow range. due to their modularity photovoltaic operation cover a wide range from less than one watt to several megawatt and photovoltaic system are able to operate as standalone system as well as grid connected system.

Solar thermal power plants can work in both area as well, dish/stirling system are small units in the kilowatt range. The mentioned parabolic trough and solar tower power plants operate only in the megawatt range.

Future perspectives

Although small photovoltaic system and photovoltaic stand alone system today are already competitive with conventional electricity supply system the solution for grid connected system is totally different .their cost can be improved if they are integrated into buildings, however if there is no significant increase in fossil fuel prices, large grid photovoltaic system well still depend upon the governmental support in the mind term.

Application

A solar power generation plant is a good operation of electrification in area that are located away from the grid line or where other source are neither available a solar power plant of the size 10-100kw depends upon the load demand. this coupled with the low gestation period, simple operation and maintance are resulting insulation of solar power plant in remote areas of many states need electrification.

conclusions

Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation are two promising technologies for climate compatible power with such enormous potent ional that they could cover more then just the present worldwide demand for electricity consumption. Photovoltaic system have advantage for low power demand stand alone system and building-integrated gridconnected system. solar thermal power plant are best operated in large gridconnected system.

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