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OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Outline
Oil Supply/Demand and Distribution of Oil Reserves Oil Recovery Mechanisms and EOR Targets Types of EOR Technologies and EOR Candidates Worldwide EOR Production Average EOR Recovery Factors EOR Economics Reasons for EOR Failures Conclusions

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Oil Consumption and Industrialization


35 30 Per Capita (Bbls / Year 25 20 Oil Consumption Increases Fastest During Early Industrialization

U.S.

15
10 5 0 1900 1910

Japan

South Korea

China India
1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Chinese Oil Imports


3,000 50

Net Crude Imports


2,500 2,000

45 40 35 30 25

NYMEX WTI

1,500 1,000 500 0 -500 1Q93

20 15 10 5 1Q94 1Q95 1Q96 1Q97 1Q98 1Q99 1Q00 1Q01 1Q02 1Q03 1Q04 1Q05 0

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US$/bbl

kb/d

U.S. Petroleum Production and Imports


12
10 8

Petroleum (MM BBLS/Day)

Domestic Petroleum Production

6 4 2 0 48

Imported Petroleum

53

58

63

68

73

78

83

88

93

98

Year
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Regional Distribution of Global Oil Reserves


Others 112B Bbls - 10% North Sea 14B Bbls - 1%

North America 62B Bbls - 4% West Africa 46B Bbls - 4%


North Africa 60B Bbls - 5% South America 62B Bbls - 5% FSU 78B Bbls - 7%

Middle East 734B Bbls - 64%

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Oil Recovery Mechanisms


CONVENTIONAL RECOVERY PRIMARY RECOVERY Natural Flow Artificial Lift (Pump, Gas Lift, etc.)

SECONDARY RECOVERY

Waterflood

Pressure Maintenance (Water, Gas Reinjection)

EOR TERTIARY RECOVERY

Thermal

Solvent

Chemical

Other

Adapted from the Oil & Gas Journal, Apr 23, 1990

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Primary recovery lasts for several months or years. As the pressure drops, flow slows and operators must use secondary recovery techniques for to recover petroleum. The most common technique: injection of water or gas Water injection also is used to increase production, but usually leads to a quicker reservoir decline and less total production

Tertiary recovery techniques may be used once the injection techniques are ineffective. However, theyre expensive, and thus feasible only if the price of petroleum is high....

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Expected Oil Recovery Efficiencies


PRIMARY METHODS Liquid and Rock Expansion Solution Gas Drive Gas Cap Expansion Gravity Drainage Water Influx SECONDARY METHODS Gas Reinjection Waterflooding OOIP (%) Up to 5 20 30 40 60 Up to 70

Sandrea, Oil & Gas Journal (Nov 2007)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EOR Targets: % OOIP


LIGHT OILS HEAVY OILS TAR SANDS

EOR Target 45% OIP

Primary 25% OIP Secondary 30% OIP

Primary 5% OIP

Secondary 5% OIP

EOR Target 100% OIP

EOR Target 90% OIP

Assumes Soi 85% PV and Sw = 15% PV

Thomas, Oil & Gas Science and Technology (2008)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EOR Targets, 2005


Cumulative Production 183 Billion Barrels (45% already abandoned) Discovered Unrecoverable by Current Technology 377 Billion Barrels

Target for EOR Technologies Target for Advanced Exploration Technology


Undiscovered Unrecoverable by Current Technology 37 Billion Barrels
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Proven Reserves 22 Billion Barrels Undiscovered Recoverable by Current Technology 30 Billion Barrels

US Department of Energy (2005)

EOR Targets, 2007


United States Canada Rest of World TOTALS (B bbls)

Cumulative Production OPEC (Middle East) Other Conventional Deepwater Arctic Enhanced Oil Recovery Extra Heavy Oil Shale Extract Exploration Potential TOTALS (B bbls)

234 -19 8 5 76 -500 83 925

31 -7 3 3 6 167 4 15 236

813 662 378 50 110 510 227 200 660 3660

1,078 662 404 61 118 592 444 704 758 4,821

Jackson, JPT (2007)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Definition of EOR Oil Recovery by Injection of Fluids not normally present in the reservoir Excludes waterflooding

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Thermal EOR Methods


THERMAL

Hot Water CSS


Frac Non-Frac

Steam SAGD
Conductive Heating

In-Situ Forward
Dry Wet W / Additives

Elec. Heat Hi Press. Air Inj.

Steam Flood

Reverse

VAPEX VAPEX + Steam SAGP

THAI CAPRI

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Non-Thermal EOR Methods


NON-THERMAL
Miscible
Slug Process Enriched Gas Drive Vaporizing Gas Drive CO2 Miscible
N2

Chemical
Polymer Surfactant Alkaline Micellar ASP Emulsion

Imm. Gas Drives


CO2 Flue Gas Inert Gas

Other
MEOR FOAM

Miscible

Alcohol

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EOR vs. Depth


EOR Method
Hydrocarbon Miscible Nitrogen and Flue Gas CO2 Miscible Surfactant Polymer Polymer Alkaline Fireflood Steam Drive

Depth (feet)
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 Deep enough for required pressure Deep enough for required pressure Deep enough for required pressure Limited by temperature Limited by temperature

Deep enough for required pressure

Good

Possible

Fair

Difficult

Not Feasible
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Dr. Larry Lake, Oilfield Review (Jan. 1992)

Oil Resources by Depth


TOTAL 12.8 Trillion Barrels
DEEP 21% 2.7 Trillion Bbls (>10,000 Ft)

INTERMEDIATE 45% 5.7 Trillion Bbls (3,500 10,000 Ft)

SHALLOW 34% 4.4 Trillion Bbls (<3,500 Ft)

Sandrea, Oil & Gas Journal (Nov 2007)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Distribution of Global Oil Reserves by Depth


Remaining Reserves (1P), 2006
Conventional
Billion Bbls of Oil Shallow (<3,500 ft) Intermediate (3,500 10,000 ft) Deep (>10,000 ft) 163 % 14

Non-Conventional
Billion Bbls of Oil 293 % 100

663

58

--

--

321 1,147

28 100

-293

-100

HIS, Credit Suisse

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EOR vs. Viscosity


EOR Method
Hydrocarbon Miscible Nitrogen and Flue Gas CO2 Miscible Surfactant Polymer Polymer Alkaline Fireflood Steam Drive

Oil Viscosity (centipoise at reservoir conditions)


1.0 100 10,000 1,000,000

Good

Possible

Fair

Difficult

Not Feasible
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Dr. Larry Lake, Oilfield Review (Jan. 1992)

Gravity Distribution of Worlds Oil


TOTAL 12.8 Trillion Barrels
LIGHT 22% 2.8 Trillion Bbls (>35 gravity)

MEDIUM 44% 5.6 Trillion Bbls (26-35 gravity)

HEAVY 1% 1.4 Trillion Bbls (<26 gravity) EXTRAHEAVY 23% 3.0 Trillion Bbls (<10 gravity)

Sandrea, Oil & Gas Journal (Nov. 2007)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EOR vs. Permeability


EOR Method
Hydrocarbon Miscible Nitrogen and Flue Gas CO2 Miscible Surfactant Polymer Polymer Alkaline Fireflood Steam Drive

Permeability (md)
10 100 Not critical if uniform Not critical if uniform High enough for good injection 1,000 100,000

Good

Possible

Fair

Difficult

Not Feasible
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Dr. Larry Lake, Oilfield Review (Jan. 1992)

Chemical EOR Processes


Typical Ultimate Recovery (%OOIP) Typical Agent Utilization

Process

Polymer

1 lb polymer / Incremental bbl 10-25 lb surfactant / Incremental bbl


35-45 lb surfactant / Incremental bbl

Micellar / Polymer

15

Alkaline / Polymer

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Gas (Miscible and Immiscible)


Typical Ultimate Recovery (%OOIP) 10 - 15 Agent Utilization 10 MCF / Incremental bbl 10 MCF / Incremental bbl

Process Miscible

Immiscible

5 - 10

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Thermal Recovery Processes


Typical Ultimate Recovery (%OOIP) 50 - 65 Agent Utilization 0.5 bbl / Net Incremental bbl

Process Steam (drive and soak)

Combustion

10 - 15

10 MCF air / Incremental bbl

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EE.UU EOR Production, 2000


800

Nitrogen Injection Production (M BBLS/Day)

HC Gas Injection
600

Flue Gas Injection


400

CO2 Injection

Thermal
200

Chemical
0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000

Year
Moritis, Oil & Gas Journal (2000)
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EE.UU EOR Production, 2008


800 TOTAL 600 Production (M B/D) Thermal

400

200

Gas
Chemical

1986

1990

1994

1998

2002

2006

Thomas, Oil & Gas Science and Technology (2008)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Est. Worldwide EOR Production, 1990


(M Barrels / Day)
Country USA Canada Europe Venezuela Other S.A. USSR Other (estd.) Total Thermal 454 8 14 108 2 20 171* 777 Miscible 191 127 3 11 NA 90 280** 702 Chemical 11.9 17.2 --NA 50.0 1.5 80.6 EOR Total 656.9 152.2 17.0 119.0 17.0 160.0 452.5 1,574.6 % 42 10 1 7 1 10 29 100

SOURCE: Oil & Gas Journal (1990) * Mainly Indonesia ** Mainly Algeria and Libya

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Est. Worldwide EOR Production, 2007


Other 17,800 B/D 22% Canada 325,500 B/D 14% Indonesia 220,000 B/D 10%

Venezuela 365,600 B/D 16%

China 166,900 B/D 7%

USA 649,300 B/D 30%

Mexico 500,000 B/D 22%


Thomas (2008)

Percentages are those of total EOR production of 2.5 MM B/D

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Canada EOR, 2006

1 3 4 21

2
3 2

Acid Gas 10 1 CO2 Combustion Hydrocarbon (Natural Gas) Steam Nitrogen Oil & Gas Journal (April 2006)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

EE.UU EOR, 2006


11 Alaska
5 1 1 39 2 9 1 1 5 1 1 2 6 3 3 3

2 14 50 1

Steam Water Combustion CO2 Gas

Oil & Gas Journal (April 2006)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Central and South America EOR, 2006


1 8 5

38 2

CO2 Hydrocarbon Steam Nitrogen

Oil & Gas Journal (April 2006)

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Rest of World EOR, 2006

1 1 5

1 17 2 19

CO2 Combustion Steam Microbial Polymer

Oil & Gas Journal (April 2006)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Summary of Active EOR Projects, 2006

Type Steam CO2 HC Gases Combustion

Number of Projects 119 94 38 21

Production (Bbls/Day) 76 220,000 100 35,000 10 80,000 100 8,100

Depth (Feet) 350 5,740 1,900 10,900 4,040 14,500 1,640 9,500

API Gravity () 8 26 19 43 15 45 18 38

Polymer
Nitrogen

20
5

53 4,900
1,000 500,000

1,063 4,626
4,600 15,400

21 34
16 - 51

OGJ Worldwide EOR Survey, 2006

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Major EOR Projects and Production


700 Total Thermal Gas Chemical

500 Production (M B/D)

300

100 0 USA Mexico Canada Venezuela Indonesia China

Thomas, Oil & Gas Science and Technology (2008)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Comparison of EOR Techniques


60

Incremental Oil Cost ($/BBL)

50

40 30

Surfactant

CO2 Injection
20 10

Thermal

Polymer Waterflood MEOR


50 60 70 80

0 0 10 20 30 40

Total Recovery (% OOIP)


Simandoux et al. IFT Journal (1990)
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

2006 Global EOR Average Costs


15 13 11

US $ / Barrel

9 7

5
3 1 Exploration & Development Acquisitions Capex Deep Water Capex Heavy Oil Capex EOR

Sandrea, Oil & Gas Journal (Nov. 2007)

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Reasons for EOR Failures


Low Oil Prices - oil price instability Insufficient description of Reservoir Geology - Underestimated Reservoir Heterogeneity Inadequate understanding of EOR mechanism - Bad Candidate Selection Unavailability of Chemicals in large quantities - Insufficient Budget (lack of commitment) Heavy reliance on lab experiments - And too much reliance on simulation Poor post treatment evaluation
Comments in white from S.M. Farouq Ali (2007)
TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Ideal Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)


Carbon Dioxide Injection Well Produced Fluids(oi, gas, water) Separation and Storage Facilities Water Injection Pump Production Well

Drive Water

Water

Miscible Zone

Addl Oil Recovery

CO2

CO2

Oil Bank

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

Real World EOR


Carbon Dioxide Injection Well Produced Fluids(oi, gas, water) Separation and Storage Facilities Water Injection Pump Production Well

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company

How to Convert EOR to IRR (TIR)


1) Consider reservoir heterogeneity 2) Predicting results is difficult 3) The more you inject, the more you get
1) Single well pilots usually not successful

4) Detailed Evaluation is essential 5) EOR is not a panacea, but will play an increasingly important role in the future 1) 70% of current oil production from mature fields

TIORCO, Inc The Improved Oil Recovery Company