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MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
Muscle contraction shortening/tensing of a muscle when tension develops Like most excitable cells, muscle fibers respond to the excitation signal with a rapid depolarization which is coupled with its physiological response: contraction.

Contraction is regulated by calcium ion concentration. In the resting state, a fiber keeps most of its intracellular calcium carefully sequestered in an extensive system of vessicles known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. There are at least two receptors in the chain between depolarization and calcium release. Once released, calcium binds to troponin, opening the myosin binding sites on filamentous actin, and force is produced.

Muscle Contraction
Action potential generated is propagated along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules Action potential triggers release from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Ca2+ binds to troponin; troponin changes shape, removing the blocking action of tropomyosin; actin active sites exposed

Tropomyosin blockage restored blocking actin active site; contraction ends and muscle fiber relaxes

Removal of Ca2+ by active transport into the SR after the action potential ends

Contraction; myosin cross bridges alternately attach to actin and detach, pulling actin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere

OBJECTIVE
This experiment aimed to observe the different responses of the gastrocnemius muscle to different frequencies and intensities of stimulation through shock.

HYPOTHESIS
The more the frequent the stimulation, the higher tension involved. #WWWYKI

MATERIALS & METHODS


Kymograph apparatus was set up.

The drum (covered with white paper) was smoked until completely covered with soot.
Picture 3. Kymograph Apparatus with drum covered with soot Picture 1. Kymograph Apparatus

MATERIALS & METHODS


Unconscious Frog Cutting off the leg Ringers Reagent

gastrocnemius muscle of an unconscious frog was cut off

Drops of Ringers reagent were applied to the muscle so as to keep it from drying up

Gastrocnemius muscle

Ringers reagent being applied

muscle

thread

electrode

muscle-femur preparation was attached to the kymograph apparatus by a thread

The thigh with the gastrocnemius muscle was put in place in the kymograph

Application of stimuli to the muscle-femur preparation:


Single Shock

Two succeeding stimuli (not longer than half a second from each other)

Stimulation for at least 5 times (with increasing speed at which stimuli are applied)

Ringers reagent being applied

muscle

electrode Stimulation with steadily increasing rate and intensity until muscle no longer responded to stimulation

RESULTS
Picture 1. A Simple Muscle Twitch

Simple Muscle Twitch


Occurred when a single stimulus in the form of a single shock was applied Represented by a single wave on kymograph tracings

Latent period, contraction period, relaxation period

RESULTS
Picture 2. A Summation

Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Summation
Occurs after the application of two successive stimuli Kymograph tracings showed two twitches wherein the second twitch was greater than the first an increase in the frequency with which a muscle is stimulated increases the strength of contraction
Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Summation
With rapid stimulation (so rapid that a muscle does not completely relax between successive stimulations), a muscle fiber is re-stimulated while there is still some contractile activity. As a result, there is a 'summation' of the contractile force.

Summation
With rapid stimulation there isn't enough time between successive stimulations to remove all the calcium from the sarcoplasm. So, with several stimulations in rapid succession, calcium levels in the sarcoplasm increase. More calcium means more active cross-bridges and, therefore, a stronger contraction.

RESULTS
Picture 3. The Treppe or Staircase Effect

Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Staircase (Treppe) Effect


happens when a skeletal muscle is stimulated immediately after the relaxation phase has ended; the contraction that occurs will develop a slightly higher maximum tension than the first stimulation. The increase in peak tension will continue over the next stimulations until stimulation is stopped.

Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Staircase (Treppe) Effect


The rise is a result of a gradual increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm, in part because the ion pumps in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are unable to recapture them in the time between stimulations. It is possible that metabolic products that form during the activity accumulate and the slight increase in temperature of muscle act created more favourable conditions for excitation-contraction coupling to work (Hallare, n.d.).

Tetanus
Muscle Strength (Tension)

Tetanus is a result of sustained contraction wherein a muscle fiber is stimulated so rapidly that it does not relax at all between stimuli.

Time (ms)

RESULTS
Picture 4. Incomplete Tetanus Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Incomplete Tetanus
The graph starts like a wave summation until it rose to a peak. It was a plateau with a line not as constant as the other plateau (shaky tracings) This happens when the stimulation of the muscle is continued and the muscle is never allowed to relax completely. A muscle producing peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is in incomplete tetanus.

RESULTS
Picture 5. Complete Tetanus Muscle Strength (Tension)

Time (ms)

Complete Tetanus
obtained by increasing the stimulation rate until the relaxation phase is eliminated. During complete tetanus, action potentials arrive so rapidly that the sarcoplasmic reticulum does not have time to reclaim the calcium ions. The high Ca2+ concentration in the cytoplasm prolongs the contraction state, making it continuous.

Muscle Contraction

Conclusion
The hypothesis is acceptable based on results of the simple muscle twitch, summation, staircase effect, and tetanus.

Recommendation
Avoid smudging the soot on the drum.