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Reproduction in Angiosperms

Flowering Plants

Angiosperms are flowering plants

Examples: grasses, roses, elm tree, oak tree, apple tree, pansies, etc.

The part of the plant that carries out sexual reproduction is the: flower

stamen filament anther stigma

pistil (carpel) ovary style

petals

sepals
receptacle

pedicel

Structure and Function of the Flower


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Pistil (carpel) female reproductive organ of flower. Located in center of flower Stigma top of the pistil enlarged area that receives pollen Style supports the stigma Ovary located at the base of the pistil. Contains ovules

Structure and Function of the Flower


5. Stamen male reproductive organs made of 2 parts 6. Filament stalk like part of stamen 7. Anther sac like structure at tip of filament. Pollen grains are produced within the anthers. Flowers may contain one or more anthers.

Structure and Function of the Flower


8. Petal can be white, green or brightly colored. Complete circle of petals is corolla. Surround reproductive organs 9. Sepal Leaf like structures that form a ring around the base of the flower. Enclose and protect flower bud before it blossoms. Complete circle of sepal calyx. Can be small & green or large & brightly colored

Structure and Function of the Flower


10. Receptacle large end of stalk to which other flower parts are attached 11. Pedicel connection between flower and stem

Structure and Function of the Flower


The essential organs of the flower are: Stamens and pistil (carpel)

Development of Gametophytes
Gametophytes of a flowering plant are the: Pollen (male) Ovules (female) They are produced by: Meiosis

Pollination

Pollination in angiosperms is the transfer of pollen from the anther to a stigma of a flower. There are a number of different pollination methods:

Pollination

Self-pollination pollen grains fall onto stigma of the same plant. Anthers must be located above stigma

Pollination

Cross-pollination transfer of pollen from anthers of one plant to stigma of another. This can be done a number of different ways: Wind pollen is adapted to be carried by wind so must be light, loose, have features that will carry them on the wind

Pollination

Cross-pollination

Water pollen is adapted to be carried by water water resistant, light buoyant Animals plants usually showy & scented to attract animals. Pollen attaches to body of animal & is transferred to other plant

Pollination

Artificial pollination humans transfer pollen from one plant to another. Used in plant breeding to produce plants with specific characteristics

Reproduction in Angiosperms

Fertilization in Angiosperms

When pollen grain lands on stigma it begins to grow pollen tube. Nucleus within pollen grain divides and forms 2 sperm nuclei Pollen tube contains tube nucleus and 2 sperm nuclei Pollen tube grows into style and eventually reaches ovary and enters ovule

Fertilization in Angiosperms

Inside embryo sac, two fertilizations occur

One sperm nuclei fuses with egg nucleus to produce diploid zygote grows into plant embryo Second sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form triploid (3N) cell food tissue known as endosperm.

stigma embryo sac

pollen tube

endosperm (3n)

ovary ovule

zygote (2n) micropyle