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PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

3 BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF DEVELOPMENT

MFI
M-MATURATION F-FERTILIZATION I-IMPLANTATION

MATURATION
SPERM Head Neck Tail OVUM 3x larger than the sperm Has a round surface with a consistency of jelly

OVULATION
Escape of one mature ovum during the menstrual cycle.

*** TWINS MONOZYGOTIC DIZYGOTIC

FERTILIZATION:
The fusion of two specialized cells. Marks the beginning of development.

What happens?
1. Ovulation

Egg bursts from the surface of the ovary


Passageway for the egg once it is discharged from the ovarys surface Fertilized egg When fertilized egg attaches and secures himself to the uterine wall Name of the fertilized egg after initial divisions

2. Fallopian Tubes 3. Zygote 4. Implantation

5. Blastocyst

IMPLANTATION
occurs in the uterus zygote blastocyst duration; 7 to 10 days

..

CHROMOSOMES & GENES:


Genotype
Phenotype

Dominant
Recessive

Conclusions:
- structurally & functionally, females resist disease better than males - the males are more subjected to hereditary disease & defect - Environmental elements expose the males to hazards - Females are born with & retain a biological superiority over males

CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS
1.Klinefelters syndrome 2.Down Syndrome 3.Turner syndrome

Down Syndrome
deviation of the 21st pair of chromosome Small hands Cardiac defects Large tongue Mental retardation

Klinefelters syndrome
XXY Small testicles Decreased body hair infertility

Turner Syndrome
XO

Genetic Disorders

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Sickle cell anemia Cystic fibrosis Phenylketonuria Spina Bifida Hemophilia Fragile x syndrome Tay Sachs

Sickle cell anemia


abnormal hemoglobin (+) pain

Cystic fibrosis

Exocrine glands Increased mucus decreased breathing

Phenylketonuria
Amino acids Mental Retardation Affects the Nervous Sytem

Spina Bifida
developmental birth defect caused by the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube

Hemophilia
impair the body's ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken recessive sex-linked, X chromosome disorders likely to occur in males rather than females

Fragile x syndrome
With Mental Retardation and learning disorders genetic syndrome results in a spectrum of characteristic physical, intellectual limitations, emotional and behavioral features which range from severe to mild in manifestation.

Tay- Sachs
TSD, also known as GM2 gangliosidosis or Hex osaminidase A deficiency presents a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities which commences at 6 months of age and usually results in death by the age of four.[1]

PREGNANCY & BIRTH:


Stages of Development:
1. Germinal period 2. Embryonic period 3. Fetal period

1. Germinal Period
1 st week: zygote travels through the fallopian tube & receives nutrients from the glands of the uterine wall. (3 to 4 days) 2 nd week: Blastocyst is firmly planted. Composed of two layers **inner layer placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac

2. Embryonic period
1.(3 rd to 8 th week) organogenesis occurs Week 3 : rapid dev. Of the NS Week 4: heart beats Week 5: Eyes & ears emerge; body buds for arms & legs Week 6 & 7: Visible fingers & toes Week 8: differentiated body parts about 95%

3. Fetal period
(3rd mo. To birth) 3 rd month: sex organs appear 4 th month: rapid growth; RBC & WBC are formed 5 th month: hears sounds; wt.: 1 pound 6 th month: rapid growth; wt.:2 pounds 7 th month:grows slowly 8 th & 9 th months: preparation for birth; senses ready to fxn, brain is 25% of the adult weight

**At the end of the 9th month: fetus is 20 long, weighs 7 pounds & 6 ounces, brain has 20 to 25% of the adult wt.

Prenatal deveopment

STAGES OF BIRTH:

1. Dilation 2. Expulsion 3. Afterbirth

Dilation

lasts 12 to 13 hours diameter of cervix is stretched

Expulsion

cervix fully dilated the baby passes thorough the birth canal

Afterbirth

placenta is discharged

Vaginal delivery

Problems in Pregnancy:
a.miscarriage b.stillbirth c.ectopic pregnancy

Birth Complications
a.Forceps delivery b.Breech delivery c.Cesarean section d.Anoxia e.RH factor

Cesarean section

PREMATURITY
a condition that occurs less than 37 weeks after conception & is defined by low birth weight & immaturity Categories: a.Borderline 37 to 38 weeks b.Moderate 31 to 36 weeks; LBW c.Extreme 24 to 30 weeks; VLBW

Causes
a.Low socioeconomic status b.Smoking c.Alcohol d.Cervical problems e.High BP, unusual stress f. Diabetes g.Heart disease

TERATOGENS

agents that can cause abnormalities

Infectious diseases:
a.Syphilis (blindness, MR, deafness) b.toxoplasmosis c.other infections & influenza, chicken pox d.Rubella (heart disorders, cataracts, deafness, MR) e.Cytomegalovirus f.Herpes Simplex

Other:
AIDS Chemicals Smoking Alcohol

DIAGNOSING FETAL PROBLEMS:


1.Amniocentesis done before the 15 th week of pregnancy & onwards 2.Fetoscopy performed after the 18 th week 3.Chorionic Villi Sampling (8-12 WEEKS) 4.Ultrasound

amniocentesis

Chorionic villi sampling

INFERTILITY
a.Low sperm count b.Sexually transmitted disease c.Chlamydia Pelvic inflammatory disease d.Endometriosis e.Intrauterine device

ASSISTED REPRODUCTION
1.In vitro fertilization fertilized an egg & sperm in a dish 2.Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer also known as embryo transfers 3.Zygote intrafallopian transfer the fertilized egg is placed/transferred into the fallopian tube 4.Sperm & egg Donation 5.Cryopreservation 6.Surrogate motherhood

ADOPTION
open means that the birth mother and adopted family know who each other are semi-open adoption, the biological parents may meet the adoptive parents one or several times and then have no more physical contact closed "confidential" adoption and sometimes "secret" adoption adopted by another family, and the record of the biological parent(s) is kept sealed Often, the biological father is not recorded even on the original birth certificate

The End.
Source: Human Development, Across the Lifespan, 5th Ed. by Dacey & Travers Developmental Psychology, 5th edition by Elizabeth Hurlock