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REGENERATIVE BRAKING IN CONVENTIONAL CARS

SUBMITTED BY N.CHANDRASEKARAN M.ERIC AMIT V.KARTHIKEYAKANDAVEL GUIDE Mr. T. SUTHAKAR M.S., SENIOR LECTURER.

ABSTRACT
When the brake is applied most of the energy of the car is dissipated as heat. Had we retrieved, it can be used for some other useful purpose. In regenerative braking, this energy is retrieved by an alternator which is stored in a battery. But, nowadays, the regenerative braking technique is applied only in Hybrid cars. Our objective is to incorporate the same in conventional cars. The methodology adopted for doing this is storing the energy in an energy storing device and retrieving it. The conventional car we have taken is Ambassador 1.5 E2 DSL model.

REGENERATIVE BRAKING
PRINCIPLE Regenerative braking works on the principle of converting kinetic energy of the vehicle normally wasted during braking, into electrical energy.

WHY REGENERATIVE BRAKING?

When the brake is applied, vehicles kinetic energy is dissipated as heat leads to wastage of engine output.

In city driving, about 30 percent of a typical car's engine output is lost.

In this, some percentage of dissipating energy can be utilized effectively to charge the storage battery.

Thus engines net efficiency can be improved.

REGENERATIVE BRAKING

However, it is not a perpetual motion machine.

Energy is still lost through the friction between road surface and other components in the system.

REGENERATIVE BRAKING
Working
When a hybrid electric vehicle is approaching a stop, it does not create friction and useless heat in order to slow down. Instead it reverses its electric motor turning it into an electric generator, creating electricity which is fed to a battery.

AIM OF OUR PROJECT

Generally, Regenerative braking is used only in hybrid cars, our aim is to incorporate the same in conventional cars.

BASIC IDEA

Basic idea is taken from the toy car which stores energy in the spiral spring during backward pull and retrieving it to make it move forward. Using this idea, with a modification in an additional gearbox, the energy which is going to be lost during braking can be stored in a spiral spring. Again from this spiral spring, retrieve the energy using fly wheel.

GEAR ARRANGEMENT OF TOY CAR

GEAR DETAILS

GEAR 1 GREEN GEAR 2 PINK GEAR 3 BROWN GEAR 4 BLUE GEAR 5 RED

POWER TRANSMISSION:INPUT :- GEAR 4 GEAR 3 GEAR 2 GEAR 1 OUTPUT:- GEAR 1 GEAR 5 GEAR 3 GEAR 4

MODIFICATION IN GEAR BOX

In the existing gear arrangement, both the input and output are from the same shaft. We are going to modify the gear arrangement in such a way that input and output are from different shafts.

PROPOSED DESIGN

DEMERITS OF SPRING

In the toy car spring is used as energy storing device for storing and retrieving it. But it has the following demerits, No Reliability. Spring constant will vary in due course of time due to its fatigue ness, leads to variation in amount of energy stored.

FINAL DESIGN

WORKING
The working procedure is, When the pedal is pressed, the conical clutch which is running on the splined shaft engaged with the first pair (free to rotate), so that the power is transmitted to the first gear pair. Since the size of the flywheel is large for high torque, the objective of keeping gear pair is just to transmit the power to parallel shaft which is offset. The second gear in the first shaft is rigidly fixed to the shaft. So this will transmit the power to its pair when the brake is pressed.

WORKING

Similarly, there is one more gear pair of speed ratio 1, is used to get an offset power transmission. The gear in the third shaft is attached with a free wheel, so that the power is transmitted in only one direction. In the third shaft, a flywheel is rigidly fixed. This will take energy and start rotating when the brake is pressed. Once the brake is released, the conical clutch disengages the first pair. Hence the first pair is stop transmitting power. But due to the inertia of the flywheel, it continues to rotate. This power will not transfer back because of the freewheel coupling between third shaft and last gear. The retrieved energy is taken from the third shaft.

TABLE
SI NO Speed (rpm) Energy retrieved (J) % Energy retrieved

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8

500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

1058.24
4232.96 9524.17 16931.85 26456.02 38096.67 51853.80 67724.85

10.48
10.47 10.48 10.48 10.47 10.47 10.47 10.46

GRAPHS
Speed Vs % Energy retrieved
11 10.9 10.8 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.1 10 0 2000 4000 6000 Speed (rpm)

% Energy retrieved

Series1

GRAPHS
Speed Vs Energy retrieved
80000

Energy retrieved(J)

70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 Speed (rpm) Series1

RESULTS

GEAR DIMENSIONS: Center distance Face width Module Pitch circle diameter of gear Pitch circle diameter of pinion Addendum Dedendum Tip circle diameter of pinion Tip circle diameter of gear Clearance Tooth thickness Fillet radius

= 7.8 cm = 3 cm = 3 mm = 78 mm = 78 mm = 3 mm = 3.75 mm = 84 mm = 84 mm = 0.75 mm = 4.7124 mm = 1.2 mm

RESULTS
FLYWHEEL DIMENSIONS: Outer diameter of the fly wheel Radius of gyration of the fly wheel Width of the fly wheel Thickness of the rim SHAFT DIMENSIONS: Diameter of shaft 1 Diameter of shaft 2 Diameter of shaft 3 = 0.23 m = 0.0823 m = 0.19 m = 0.115 m

= 2 cm = 2 cm = 4 cm

CONCLUSION

Thus for the Regenerative Braking arrangement proposed, theoretical calculations are performed. Also the characteristics of the arrangement with flywheel are studied using the following graphs, Speed (rpm) Vs Percentage Energy retrieved and Speed (rpm) Vs Energy retrieved (J)

From the graph it is inferred that Percentage Energy retrieved is almost constant also the energy retrieved by the flywheel is gradually increasing for increasing speeds.

REFERENCES
Automotive Mechanics by William H. Crouse and Donald L. Anglin, Tenth edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Gear Engineering by Merritt (HE), Pitman Publishing company, London. Gear Handbook by Darle W. Dudley, Mc-Grawhill company

Machine Design by T.V. Sundararajamoorthy, N. Shanmugam, Anuradha Publications.


Theory of Machines by R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta, S. Chand & Co Ltd, India. Design Data by Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, published by Kalaikathir Achchagam.

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