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Language Curriculum and Materials Development Workshop for Primary School English Teachers of Brunei Darussalam

Teaching Materials

Materials that are specifically designed,

selected and exploited for language learning and teaching purposes

Materials for Language TeachingA definition


Materials- Anything that can be used to facilitate learning: Linguistic Visual Auditory Kinaesthetic

Materials for Language TeachingPrint and Non-Print Sources


Print newspapers, photographs, print advertisements

Digital Resources
web-based texts: online articles, blogs, wikis Teaching Materials CD-ROMs, DVDs

Non-Print

Analogue Resources films, TV, radio broadcasts

Face-to-face encounters

Conversations, interviews, etc.

Live Performances Skits, puppet plays, etc.

Purposes of Using Language Teaching Materials


Instructional- inform learners about the language Experiential- provide learners with opportunities to use the language Elicitation- stimulate language use by eliciting ideas and language from students Exploratory- seek discoveries about language use

Why do learners and teachers need teaching materials?


Teachers and Learners A map- to show where one is going and where has been It provides language samples It offers a greater variety of language activities

Why do learners and teachers need teaching materials?


Teachers It provides a structure for teaching It saves time. To prepare materials from scratch for every lesson would be impossible It offers linguistic and methodological support It is easy to keep track of what one has done and easier for reporting
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Why do learners and teachers need teaching materials?


Learners It defines what is to be learned and what will be tested It reinforces what the teacher has done and makes revision and preparation possible. Offers support for learning outside class

What do teachers want in teaching materials/ course books?


Primary Compliance with curriculum Clearly laid out Catering to different abilities Authentic materials Dealing with current issues Problem solving activities
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What do learners want in teaching materials/ course books ?


Primary Interesting topics Content in story form Colourful pictures/layout Interactive activities Activities involving computers

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From Syllabus to Materials


Teachers and learners may want different things from materials The materials developer is guided by the syllabus The syllabus is the starting point of the material developer's work.

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Steps in Material Design


IDENTIFICATION by teacher or learners of a need to fulfil or a problem to solve by the creation of materials

EXPLORATION of the area of need/problem in terms of what language, what meanings, what functions, what skills etc?

CONTEXTUAL REALISATION the proposed new of materials by finding of suitable ideas, contexts or texts with which to work

Steps in Material Design


PEDAGOGIGAL REALISATION of materials by the finding of Appropriate exercises and activities AND the writing of Appropriate instructions for use

PHYSICAL PRODUCTION of materials involving consideration of layout, type size, visuals, reproduction, tape length etc

USE in the classroom

Steps in Material Design


EVALUATION OF MATERIALS Teacher evaluation based on feedback from teachers and students.

REVISION OF MATERIALS

Factors to Consider in designing of teaching materials


Materials are a stimulus to learning Help to organise the teaching/learning process Provide models of correct and appropriate use of language Enable learners to practice and use the language Embody a view of language teaching and learning

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Definition of A Language Task

refers to any proposal contained within the materials for actions to be undertaken by the learners, which has the direct aim of bringing about the learning of a foreign language - Breen (1987)

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Key aspects of A Task

What is the learner expected to do? - a process through which learners and teachers are to go
What input is given to the learner? - content and language the learner is expected to focus on What does the task focus on? - form focussed

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Key aspects of ATask

With whom does the learner interact? Classroom participation concerning with whom (if anyone) learners are to work with

What is the expected product from the learner? E.g., a letter, problem solving exercise, a pamphlet, a conversation, etc.

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8/9/2012 Patricia Wee

Indonesian Protocol Officers 2009

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Seven types of tasks


1.

Listing: brainstorming and/or fact finding e.g. things, qualities, people, places, features, things to do, reasons. Ordering and sorting: sequencing, ranking, classifying e.g. sequencing story pictures, ranking items according to cost, popularity, negative or positive.

2.

3.

Matching e.g. Listen and identify, listen and do (TPR), match phrases/descriptions to pictures, match directions to maps.
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Seven types of task


4.

Comparing: finding similarities or Differences -e.g. comparing ways of greetings or local customs, playing Spot the difference, contrasting two different pictures. Problem-solving: logic puzzles, real-life problems, case studies, incomplete texts e.g. logic problems, giving advice, proposing and evaluating solutions, predicting a story ending.

5.

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Seven types of tasks


6.

Projects and creative tasks e.g. doing and reporting a survey, producing a class newspaper, planning a radio show, designing a brochure. Sharing personal experiences: storytelling, anecdotes, reminiscences, opinions, reactions e.g. early schooldays, terrible journeys, embarrassing moments, personality quizzes.
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7.

Task Focus

Form Focussed Meaning Focussed Form and Meaning Focussed

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8/9/2012 Patricia Wee

Indonesian Protocol Officers 2009

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Material Evaluation for Listening and Speaking (Primary 3 Pupils Book, Pp. 72-75)

Evaluate and adapt the material based on the following 6 aspects (see the checklist):
A. The

Task B. The Rubrics C. The Visuals D. Authenticity E. Model of Language Use

Rubrics

Clarity Short concise sentences Task breakdown

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Rubrics
Purpose

Audience

Text produced

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Rubrics
Why?
Purpose

Who?

Audience

Text produced

What?
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Rubrics
Analyse the Task using PAT Task One Write a book report. Task Two Your friend Hasan has decided to come to your town for his holiday. He is driving to your town. Write him an email giving

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The Use of Visuals in Language Teaching Materials


Purposes To increase comprehension of a text To provide information about places To help learners visualise people, places and objects To focus on specific meanings To elicit ideas and language For decoration purposes To fill space gaps in textbooks

Representation of Culture
Culture

specific or culture neutral?

Can

language be culturally neutral? considerations

Cross-cultural

Culture and Teaching

It is the teacher's job to equip the student to express her/himself in exactly the ways s/he chooses to do so-rudely, tactfully, or in an elaborately polite manner. What we want to prevent is her/his being unintentionally rude or subservient.

Authentic materials

Authentic text Authentic tasks

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What are Authentic Texts?

Texts which have been produced for purposes other than to teach language (Nunan 1988, Wong, Kwok & Choi 1995)

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Authenticity

An authentic text is a stretch of real language, produced by a real speaker or writer for a real audience and designed to convey a message of some sort (Morrow 1977:13)

Reasons for The Use of Authentic Texts

Gives learners exposure to language as it is used Models for learners language use especially in listening and speaking Motivates learners
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The Use of Authentic TextsChallenges

Authentic listening texts- would not be scripted or edited


In reality poor quality of recordings, length and other pedagogic considerations lead to spoken texts being re-recorded or edited
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Criteria for Selection of Authentic Texts

Relevance Intrinsic interest of topic/ theme Linguistic demands Cognitive demands Logistical considerations- length/ legibility/ audibility Quality- model of use or representative of text type Exploitability

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Balancing authentic texts and scripted texts

Widdowson(1984) argues that pedagogic presentation of language... necessarily involves methodological contrivance which isolates features of the language from their natural surroundings.

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Authentic Tasks vs Pedagogic tasks

An authentic task is a task that simulates real life reading, writing listening or speaking tasks which often involves a focus on meaning.
A pedagogic task is a task the teacher uses to fulfil teaching-learning purposes

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Pedagogic Task

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Authentic task

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Internationally Intelligible English- Criteria (Smith and Rafiqad 1983)


Intelligibility- word level recognition Are the words used recognisable as English? Comprehensibility- Degree to which a recipient finds a text meaningful Texts that contain references which are only culturally comprehensible poses a problem E.g. Please dont sit there because the feng shui there is not good.

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Internationally Intelligible English

Interpretability apprehension of intent, purpose or meaning behind an utterance.


Interpretability is at the core of communication and is more important than the correct use of grammar.

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What makes Spoken English Intelligible? -Jenkins


All the consonants are important except for 'th' sounds as in 'thin' and 'this Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. For example, the cluster in the word 'string' cannot be simplified to 'sting' or 'tring' and remain intelligible. The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example, the difference between the vowel sounds in 'sit' and seat'

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What makes spoken English Intelligible?

Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. This is the stress on the most important word (or syllable) in a group of words. For example, there is a difference in meaning between 'My son uses a computer' which is a neutral statement of fact and 'My SON uses a computer', where there is an added meaning (such as that another person known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).
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Summary of Principles in materials design


Materials should be: clearly linked to the syllabus balanced between authentic task and pedagogic task balanced between authentic text and pedagogically contrived text allow learners to focus on Standard English encourage learners to develop learning

Summary of Principles in materials design


Encourage learners to apply their language learning skills to the world beyond the class room Be culturally representative Sensitive to values Avoid stereotyping

It is that in writing textual materials for a state-level system in a multilingual and multicultural developing society it becomes necessary to satisfy different sets of criteria which, in some cases, do make contradictory demands. Some of them may arise in the desire to make education a handmaiden to economic progress and social reconstruction. A few important ones stem from the need to provide for the less fortunate, poorer or historically abused sections of society,,e.g. the lower classes or castes, women, farm hands or the rural poor. To answer all of them cannot be an easy task. (Tickoo1995:39 ) in Materials for a State-level System: A

retrospective record in A. Hidalgo et.al Getting started: Materials writers on Material writing. SEAMEO RELC)

MATERIALS ADAPTATION

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Course book- based teaching vs course book teaching


Teaching a book is very different from teaching a course based on a book Textbooks are written to be as relevant as possible to as large a number of students as possible. No one book can be suitable for all the students Hence teachers have to select which materials they will use in the class

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Objective of activity suitable?

Yes

No

Methods/ Task appropriate?

Omit or replace

Yes Content/language suitable? Yes No

No

Change or replace

Use as it stands

Keep objective and task 54 But change topic or language

Purpose for adaptation


To make the material more suitable for the learners it is being used with i.e. progression or grading To compensate for deficiencies or what the material lacks. Can be linguistic, lack of variety or authenticity To make it more relevant to learners interest and needs i.e. task authenticity, localising content/ cultural appropriacy

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Selection of Teaching Materials for a lesson


Selection of teaching material Reordering Rejection

Adding Changing Replacing

Creative and evaluative dimension

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Reasons for Adapting Materials


Personalise Individualise Localise Modernise Add real choice Cater for all sensory learner styles Encourage higher-level thinking skills Make the language input accessible Make the language input more engaging Make the language activity more interesting
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McDonough and Shaw, Islam and Mares

Pre-Listening Activity : Prime for Reading

Get learners ready for listening by providing a context to the text, a listening purpose and the necessary language input

TASK DESIGN: Create a worksheet with the names of sea creatures and get students to match them with the pictures

Match the names of the sea creatures with their pictures and identify their colours.
Sea creatures Shark Angel Fish Octopus Turtle Sea Horse Crab Star fish Sea snake

While-Listening Task

Provide the scaffolding of meaning and form by having learners listen to a story of how a baby shark was saved. Students sequence the events in the story as they listen.

Post-Listening Task: Form & Meaning Focus


1. One day Sammy the baby shark decided to go for a dip in the ocean. He was a very special shark as he was blue in colour. 2. He had a great time as he swam in the blue waters with all the other sea creatures in the sea 3. All of a sudden, he felt someone tugging at his fins

4. Before he realised it, he found himself trapped in a fishing net


Form: simple past tense Meaning: sequencing of events in a story

As you listen to the story, rearrange the events in the sequence that you listened to
All of a sudden, he felt someone tugging at his fins
He had a great time as he swam in the blue waters with all the other sea creatures in the sea Before he realised it, he found himself trapped in a fishing net One day Sammy the baby shark decided to go for a dip in the ocean. He was a very special shark as he was blue in colour.

Post listening activity

Listen to an environmentalist speak on why sharks are endangered species and how we can protect them. Take notes of the main points as you listen

Integrating Speaking skills


Role play You have been asked to campaign for the protection of sharks at your school assembly Use the notes you have made earlier and pictures provided, persuade your classmates to help save the sharks. Give reasons why they need to do so There will be a question and answer session at the end of your talk. Respond to their questions.

Notes and pictures

Ban the killing of sharks as they are endangered species

Do not maim the shark

Boycott all products that are derived from sharks


Stop serving shark fin soup at wedding dinners

Speaking : Production Form & Meaning Focus


Ban the killing of sharks as they are endangered species Do not maim the shark Stop serving shark fin soup at wedding dinners Boycott all products that are derived from sharks

Form: Use of the negative imperative Meaning : Campaigning for saving the shark

Recycle the text:


Listening Get students to retell the story to their friend They use the same forms but substitute with another creature which needs to be protected Speaking Students work in pairs. Based on pictures and notes given,

Create a Pre-Reading Activity to fit the Task Focus


Activity: Ordering and Sorting Activity Design: Create a questionnaire with 10 statements about the major food groups. Get students in pairs to say whether each one is true or false. Do not be too concerned about students

Work in Pairs to Answer The Questionnaire (T/F)


STATEMENTS T/F

1. The four food groups are: carbohydrates, protein, fats and vitamins/minerals.
2. Carbohydrates and fats are energy-giving foods. 3. If we eat too much fats, we will become obese.

4. If we eat a meal rich in starch, we will get hungry very quickly.


5. Rice, noodle, bread and pasta are all contain sugar. 6. If we eat more calcium food, we will have better eyesight. 7. Carrots and eggs contain Vitamin A. 8. Protein food is necessary for the growth and repair of our muscles. 9. Cakes, biscuits and pastries are rich in protein. 10. Fruits with Vitamin C like oranges and lemons give us healthy teeth and gums.

Meaning Focussed: Introduce the content of the text and new vocabulary
STATEMENTS 1. The four food groups are: carbohydrates, protein, fats and vitamins/minerals. 2. Carbohydrates and fats are energy-giving foods. 3. If we eat too much fats, we will become obese. 4. If we eat a meal rich in starch, we will get hungry very quickly. 5. Rice, noodle, bread and pasta are all contain sugar. 6. If we eat more calcium food, we will have better eyesight. 7. Carrots and eggs contain Vitamin A. 8. Protein food is necessary for the growth and repair of our muscles. 9. Cakes, biscuits and pastries are rich in protein. 10. Fruits with Vitamin C like oranges and lemons give us healthy teeth and gums. T/F T T T F F F T T F T

While-Reading Activities

Provide the scaffolding of meaning and form by having learners fill in graphic organizer and/or a table as the students read in pairs or individually, aloud or silently.

1. Hierarchy Graphic Organizer: To show the relationship between food groups

4 food groups
Carbohydrates
Starch Sugar

Protein
Animal Plant Animal

Fats
Plant

Vitamins & Minerals


Vitamin A, B, C Calciu m

2. Table: To classify food items into the 4 major food groups

How can we improve these questions to make them more meaning focused ?

Post-Reading Activity: Form & Meaning Focus


1.

If we eat a meal rich in starch, we should not be hungry too quickly. If we eat too much fats, we may become obese.

2.

3.
4.

If people are obese, they can get heart diseases.


If we eat carrots and eggs, we will have good eyesight.

Form: conditional tense (modals) Meaning: Cause-and-effect

Recycle the text: Running Dictation


Purpose: Get students to recall what they have read. Prepare a number of copies of a section of the text. Pin these to the walls round the classroom. Divide students into groups Members of the group take it in turns to run to the wall and remember as much of the text as they can. They then run back to the group and dictate what they have remembered. As soon as a group believe they have completed the task they take it to the teacher. Teacher notes down time taken on their paper. Mark paper and add thirty seconds for each mistake.

Material Evaluation for Writing: Primary 6 Workbook, Pp. 39-40


Evaluate and adapt the material based on the following 6 aspects (see the checklist):
A. The

Task B. The Rubrics C. The Visuals D. Authenticity E. Model of Language Use

Modelling a Writing Task


Choice of Task: Creative Group Project

What is the learner expected to do?

- to create a meaningful information text on keeping fit and healthy

What language input is given to the learner?


- the cause of obesity - advice on how to keep fit and healthy

What does the task focus on? - form and meaning With whom does the learner interact? - individual and group work What is the expected product from the learner?
- writing of the information text with visuals (a poster)
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Material Adaptation : A Pre-Writing Activity

Do you think Bertha looked better when she was fat or when she was slim? Write a list of 3 reasons to support your answer.

Scaffolding by Comparison

How Bertha looks now 1. She lost her teeth 2. She has spots on her face 3. She is over-weight What Bertha should not eat and not do 1. 2. Drink fizzy drinks 3. Be a potato couch

How Bertha will look when she is slim

What foods Bertha should eat and do


1. Eat fruit, fresh vegetables, healthy snacks

2. 3. Do more exercises like: ..

Writing Task Selection: Creative Project


Design a poster with tips to help students in your school keep fit and heaIthy.

BRUNEI ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK, P.6


By the end of the 6 year course of primary schooling, learners should be able then to read a variety of texts both in print and in the electronic media for information and enjoyment such as notices, warnings, instructions, directions, recipes, messages, simple passages, letters, advertisements, poems, stories, descriptions, recounts; and maps, charts, graphs and time-tables.

BRUNEI ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK, P.20

BRUNEI ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK, P.22


3.11

Thinking Skills and Questioning

Thinking skills is one of the essential skills highlighted in the new National Education System for the 21st century or Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad Ke-21 (SPN 21). It is to be made explicit in the teaching and learning for all levels of schooling, either at primary or secondary level. Thinking skills and thinking strategies should be integrated in the teaching and learning processes. The Thinking Skills our students need to develop: Blooms Six Taxonomy (know, comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, evaluate), Observe (speculate, collect data, organize), Reflect (compare/contrast, identify relationships, draw inferences/assumptions), Resolve (values with new materials, personal assumptions, and preferences), and Evaluate (evidence, premises, statements of policy and value, agendas).

It is recommended that schools give priority to the development of communication skills, creativity and critical thinking skills (3Cs). To enhance

BRUNEI ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK, P.52


STANDARD DESCRIPTORS for standard 4 (WRITING)

Enjoy writing strings of sentences and show satisfaction on the finished products. Reread their own writing, checking that it makes sense. Use of strategies to revise writing; for example, reading aloud, use of feedback from others.

Apply combination of writing with drawings or computer graphics to support meaning.


Show enthusiasm to edit writing independently for correct grammar, capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure.

BRUNEI ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK, P.7


By the end of their primary schooling, learners should be able to write lists, messages, letters, instructions, directions, simple poems and stories, descriptions, simple recounts and simple reports for various purposes.