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Meaning Of Recruitment
According to Edwin B. Flipped , Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization It is a linking activity that brings together those offering jobs and those seeking jobs.

Recruitment needs are of three types:

1)Planned- retirement policy, expansion diversification 2)Unexpected- death, illness, accidents, labour turn over 3) Anticipated

Recruitment has three major purposes: 1)To increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. 2) To meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce. 3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills.

Characteristics Of Recruitment

Recruitment is a process or series of action. It is a linking activity as it brings employer and prospective employees together. It is a positive function. The basic function of recruitment is to locate the sources of people required to meet the job requirements. It is a pervasive function. Recruitment is a two-way function as it takes both recruiter and recruitee together. Recruitment is a complex job.

Factors Affecting Recruitment

External Factors
Recru itmen t

Internal Factors

Internal Factors

Recruitment Policy Human Resource Planning

Size of the firm

Cost Growth and expansion

External Factors

Supply and demand Labour market

Competitors Political-social-legal environment

Recruitment process

The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees. Identifying the prospective employees with required characteristics. Communicating the information about the organisation,the job and the terms and conditions of service. Encouraging the identified candidates to apply for jobs in the organisation. Evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment process.

Sources of Recruitment
Internal Sources

External Sources

Sources Of Internal Recruitment

Present Employees-promotion, demotion and transfer Retired and retrenched employees Dependants and relatives of deceased and disabled employee.

Merits of internal source

Increase in Motivation Labor turnover reduces Familiarity with the organisational set up Time and expenditure Loyalty Improve relation with trade union

Limitation of number of employees Biasedness May cause Political infighting among employees. It discourages flow of new blood into the organization. Restrict mobility of labour

External sources of Recruitment

Advertisement Employment Exchange School College & Universities Recommendation of existing employees Unsolicited Applicant Labour contractors Executive search agencies or placement agents Job portals-e.g.

Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. Big pool of candidates can be acquired. Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside.

Costly Dissatisfaction among internal candidate Since employee will be new to the organization so orientation and training is necessary.

Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the applicants. In this process relevant information about the applicants are collected through a series of steps so as to evaluate their suitability for the job to be filled. It is considered as a negative process as it means rejection of several and selection of few.

Significance of selection

Selection is an important function as no organisation can achieve its goal without selecting the right people . Proper selection is helpful in increasing efficiency and productivity of the enterprise .It helps to reduce absenteeism and labour turnover . Faulty selection leads to wastage of time and money and spoils the environment of an organisation.

Factors to be considered for selecting

Physical characteristics Personal characteristics Proficiency or skill and ability Competency Temperament and character Interest


The selection process consists of a series of steps .At each stage , facts may come to light which may lead to rejection of the applicant .It is a series of hurdles or barriers which an applicant must cross Candidates who qualify a hurdle go to the next stage while those who do not qualify are dropped out . This technique is called SUCCESSIVE HURDLES TECHNIQUE.

Selection procedure
Reception of Application Scrutiny of Application Preliminary Interview


Selection Test
Employment Interview Reference & Background Physical Examination Selection & Placement

The general steps involved in employee selection are:

APPLICATION BLANK-Application form is a traditional and widely accepted device for collecting information from the candidates which help the management to select . Generally an information blank contains the identifying information , personal information , physical information , family background , education , experience , references etc.

PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW-it is a process in which prospective candidates are given the necessary information about the nature of job and organization Necessary information is also elicited from the candidates about their education ,skills , experience ,expected salary etc . Preliminary interviews saves time and effort of both the company and candidates.

SELECTION TEST-The most vital technique of selection is testing. It would be difficult for the organization to evaluate the candidates suitability to the job and accordingly giving rank to them. The various selection tests are aptitude test , achievement test , personality test , interest test. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW-An interview is a conversation between two persons .In selection it involves a personal, observational , and face to face appraisal of candidates employment.

MEDICAL EXAMINATION-The clearance of physical examination is necessary to ensure compliance with the physical standards mentioned in the job specification and the organizational recruitment policy . Candidates who have crossed the above stages are sent for a physical examination either to a companys physician or a medical officer.

REFERENCE CHECKS-The applicant is asked to mention in his application form the names and addresses of two or more persons who know him well.

FINAL APPROVAL-In most organizations selection process is carried out by the HR department .The candidates shortlisted by the department are finally approved by the executives of the concerned units. Employment is offered in the form of an appointment letter.

Recruitment Vs Selection

Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation. It is a positive process. It aims to create large pool of candidates.

Selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. It is a negative process Its aim is to identify and reject unsuitable candidates.


It does not result in contract of service.

It always preceeds selection. It involves searching.

It leads to a contract of services between the employer and the selected candidate. It always succeeds recruitment.

It involves comparison and choice.


Human Resource Management:- C.B. Gupta

Human resource management- A. K. Singhal

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