Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

International Business Environments and Operations

Part 4 World Financial Environment

9-1
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 9

Global Foreign Exchange Markets

9-2
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Objectives
To learn the fundamentals of foreign exchange To identify the major characteristics of the foreignexchange market and how governments control the flow of currencies across national borders To describe how the foreign-exchange market works To examine the different institutions that deal in foreign exchange To understand why companies deal in foreign exchange
9-3
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

What is Foreign Exchange?


Money denominated in the currency of another nation or group of nations Can be in the form of cash, funds available on credit and debit cards, travelers checks, bank deposits, or other short-term claims An exchange rate is the price of a currency

9-4
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Players on the Foreign Exchange Market


The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) divides the foreign-exchange market into reporting dealers (also known as dealer banks or money center banks), other financial institutions, and non-financial institutions.

9-5
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Aspects of the Foreign Exchange Market


Over-the-counter (OTC) commercial and investment banks. Securities exchanges CME, NASDAQ OMX, NYSE Liffe

9-6
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Traditional Foreign Exchange Instruments


Spot Transactions Outright Forward Transactions FX Swap Currency Swaps Options Futures Contract

9-7
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Size, Composition, and Location of the Foreign Exchange Market


Size of the foreign-exchange market$3.2 trillion daily The U.S. dollar is the most important currency on the foreign-exchange market Frequently Traded Currency Pairs Top two pairs include EUR/USD and USD/JPY

9-8
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Global Foreign Exchange: Currency Distribution

9-9
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Geographical Distribution of Foreign Exchange Markets

9-10
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Reasons Why Dollar is Widely Traded


1. Its an investment currency in many capital markets. 2. Its a reserve currency in many central banks. 3. Its a transaction currency in many international commodity markets. 4. Its an invoice currency in many contracts. 5. Its an intervention currency employed by monetary authorities in market operations to influence their own exchange rates.
9-11
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Spot Market


The spot market is for foreign-exchange transactions that occur within 2 business days.

Direct and Indirect Quotas


A dealer (US based) quotes for the British pounds $1.6469/71; means: the dealer is willing to buy pounds at $1.6469 each and sell them for $1.6471 each.

Base and Term Currencies


When dealers quote currencies to their customers, they always quote the base currency (the denominator) first, followed by the terms currency (the numerator).

Inter-bank Transactions
Transactions between banks.
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

9-12

The Forward Market


The forward rate is the rate quoted for transactions that call for delivery after two business days.

Forward Discounts-exist when the forward rate is less than the spot rate. Forward Premiums-exist when the forward rate is greater than the spot rate.

Options
Option- is the right, but not the obligation, to trade (buy/sell) a foreign currency at a specific exchange rate.

Futures
Futures-specifies an exchange rate in advance of the actual exchange of currency.
9-13
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Foreign Exchange Trading Process

9-14
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Banks and Exchanges


The top banks in the inter-bank market in foreign exchange are so ranked because of their ability to Trade in specific market locations. Engage in major currencies and cross-trades. Deal in specific currencies. Handle derivatives (forwards, options, futures, swaps). Conduct key market research.

9-15
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Foreign-Exchange Trades: Top Commercial and Investment Banks, 2009 as Ranked by Overall Market Share

9-16
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Top Exchanges for Trading Foreign Exchange


Firms can also use securities exchanges for derivatives trade in foreign exchange. CME Group NASDAQ OMX NYSE Liffe

9-17
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Future: Where are foreign exchange markets headed?


Restrictions to the free flow of goods and services should diminish Technological developments cause foreign exchange trades to be executed more quickly and cheaply. Internet trade will increase currency price transparency and increase the ease of trading, thus allowing more investors into the market.
9-18
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

How Companies Use Foreign Exchange


Business Purpose I Cash Flow Aspects of Imports and Exports Commercial Bills of Exchange Letters of Credit

Business Purpose II (sometimes companies deal in foreign exchange for profit!!) Other Financial Flows Speculation Buying or selling of a commodity (in this case foreign
currency) that has both an element of risk and the chance of great profit.

Arbitrage Purchase of foreign currency on one market for immediate


resale on another market (in different country) to profit from price discrepancy.
9-19
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

9-20
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall