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OBJECTIVESAND METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

INTRODUCTION Concrete: Concrete is a stone like substance obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of cement, sand and gravel or other aggregate and water to harden in forms of the shape and of dimensions of the desired structure. Reinforced cement concrete: Since concrete is a brittle material and is strong in compression. It is weak in tension, so steel is used inside concrete for strengthening and reinforcing the tensile strength of concrete. The steel must have appropriate deformations to provide strong bonds and interlocking of both materials. When completely surrounded by the hardened concrete mass it forms an integral part of the two materials, known as "Reinforced Concrete".

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE


Advantages of reinforced concrete It has relatively high compressive strength It has better resistance to fire than steel It has long service life with low maintenance cost In some types of structures, such as dams, piers and footings, it is most economical structural material It can be cast to take the shape required , making it widely used in pre-cast structural components It yields rigid members with minimum apparent deflection Yield strength of steel is about 10 times the compressive strength of structural concrete and well over 100 times its tensile strength By using steel, cross sectional dimensions of structural members can be reduced e.g in lower floor columns

Disadvantages of reinforced concrete It needs mixing, casting and curing, all of which affect the final strength of concrete The cost of the forms used to cast concrete is relatively high It has low compressive strength as compared to steel structures (the ratio is about 1:10 depending on material) which leads to large sections in columns/beams of multi-storey buildings Cracks develop in concrete due to shrinkage and the application of live loads

Reinforced concrete is a composite material. Flexibility in form and superiority in performance, Mould ability and monolithcity. It has helped the architects and engineers to build several attractive shell forms and other curved structures. Its role in several straight line structural forms like multistoried frames, bridges, foundations etc. is enormous.

The designer has to learn the design of basic structural elements of reinforced concrete elements such as beams, columns, slabs, walls and foundations The joints and connections are then carefully developed. Unified approach of both Structural Engineer and Architect will result in an "Integrated" structure, where every material of the total structure takes part effectively for form, function, aesthetics, strength as well as safety and durability.

PHASES OF R.C.C. CONSTRUCTION


R.C.C. construction has three phases viz. planning, design (including analysis) and construction. 1. Planning Phase: It is the job of the architect/planner to conceive and plan the architectural layout of the building, to suit the functional requirements of the client, with due regard to aesthetic, environmental and economic considerations. Structural feasibility is also an important consideration, and for this the structural designer has to be consulted. 2. Design Phase: Once the preliminary plans have been approved, the structural engineer/consultant, Carry out the task of (i) Selection of the most appropriate structural system and initial proportioning of members, (ii) Estimation of loads on the structure, (iii) Structural analysis for the determination of the stress resultants (member forces) and displacements induced by various load combinations, (iv) Structural design of the actual proportions (member sizes, reinforcement details) and grades of materials required for safety and serviceability under the calculated member forces, and (v) submission of working drawings 3. Construction Phase: The plans and designs conceived on paper get translated into concrete (!) reality.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
Any structure is made up of structural elements :load-carrying, such as beams and columns) and non-structural elements such as partitions, false ceilings, doors). The structural elements, put together, constitute the structural system. Its function is to resist effectively the action of gravitational and environmental loads, and to transmit the resulting forces to the supporting ground, without significantly disturbing the geometry, integrity and serviceability of the structure. one-dimensional (skeletal) elements (such as beams, columns, arches, truss elements) or two-dimensional elements (such as slabs, plates and shells).

TRANSMISSION OF LOADS
Consider, for example, a reinforced concrete overhead water tank structure . The structural system essentially comprises three subsystems, viz. the tank, the staging and the foundation, which are distinct from one another in the sense that they are generally designed, as well as constructed, in separate stages. The loads acting on the structure are due to Dead loads (due to self-weight), live loads (due to water in the tank, maintenance on the roof), wind loads (acting on the exposed surface areas of the tank and staging), and seismic loads (due to earthquake induced ground excitation). The effect of the loads acting on the tank are transmitted to the staging through the main ring beam; the effect of the loads on the staging are, in turn, transmitted to the foundation, and ultimately, to the ground below.

IDEALISATION
Although the building is a three-dimensional structure, it is usually conceived, analysed and designed as an assemblage of two-dimensional (planar) sub-systems lying primarily in the horizontal and vertical planes (e.g., floors, roof, walls, plane frames, etc.), as indicated in Fig. This division into a horizontal (floor) system and a vertical (framing) system is particularly convenient in studying the load resisting mechanisms in a building.

CODES
BASIC CODE:
IS 456 : 2000 Plain and reinforced concrete Code of practice (fourth revision) LOADING STANDARDS The loads to be considered for structural design are specified in the following loading standards: IS 875 (Parts 1-5) : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures (second revision) Part 1 : Dead loads Part 2 : Imposed (live) loads Part 3 : Wind loads Part 4 : Snow loads Part 5 : Special loads and load combinations IS 1893 : 2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (fourth revision). DESIGN HANDBOOKS The Bureau of Indian Standards has also published the following handbooks, which serve as useful supplements to the 1978 version of the Code. Although the handbooks need to be updated to bring them in line with the recently revised (2000 version) of the Code, many of the provisions continue to be valid (especially with regard to structural design provisions). SP 16 : 1980 Design Aids (for Reinforced Concrete) to IS 456 : 1978 SP 24 : 1983 Explanatory Handbook on IS 456 : 1978 SP 34 : 1987 Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing SP 23 : 1982 Design of Concrete Mixes OTHER RELATED CODES IS 13920 : 1993 Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces.

METHODS OF DESIGN
1. WORKING STRESS METHOD: This method assumes strain compatibility i.e. strain in reinforcing steel is assumed to be equal to that in the adjoining concrete. Consequently stress in steel is linearly related to stress in concrete by a constant factor known as modular ratio, which is ratio of modulus of elasticity of concrete to modulus of elasticity of steel . Working Stress= Yield stress/Factor of Safety F.O.S. for yield strength of Steel =1.8 for cube strength of concrete=3.0

It is based on linear elastic behaviour, which is quite justified since permissible stresses are kept well below ultimate strength of the materials. Simple both in concept as well as in application. Since give larger sections than ultimate load method, hence provide better serviceability performance i.e. less deflection , less crack width Investigate the serviceability state of deflection and cracking

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF W.S.M. MERITS


DEMERITS
Does not show real strength Gives larger %age of compression steel as compared to other methods Because of creep and non linearity concrete does not have definite modulus of elasticity Fails to discriminate different types of loads though acting simultaneously, but having different uncertainties

ULTIMATE LOAD METHOD


This method is sometimes also referred to as the load factor method or the ultimate strength method. In this method, the stress condition at the state of impending collapse of the structure is analysed, and the non-linear stressstrain curves of concrete and steel are made use of. The concept of modular ratio and its associated problems are avoided entirely in this method. The safety measure in the design is introduced by an appropriate choice of the load factor, defined as the ratio of the ultimate load (design load) to the working load. The ultimate load method makes it possible for different types of loads to be assigned different load factors under combined loading conditions, thereby overcoming the related shortcoming of WSM

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF ULM


MERITS It uses fully the actual stress strain curve, and utilises reserve strength of plastic region Allows different load factors for different types of loads, hence gives exact margin of safety against collapse . The failure load computed by ULM matches experimental results DEMERITS Does not take into consideration serviceability criteria of deflection and cracking. Does not take into effect of creep and shrinkage. Since distribution of stress resultant at ultimate load is taken as distribution at service loads magnified by load factors, but significant redistribution of stress resultants takes place as loading is increased from service load to ultimate load

LIMIT STATE METHOD


The philosophy of the limit states method of design (LSM) is to provide adequate safety at ultimate loads as well as adequate serviceability at service loads, by considering all possible limit states. The selection of the various multiple safety factors is supposed to have a sound probabilistic basis, involving the separate consideration of different kinds of failure, types of materials and types of loads. Limit States A limit state is a state of impending failure, beyond which a structure ceases to perform its intended function satisfactorily, in terms of either safety or serviceability; i.e., it either collapses or becomes unserviceable. There are two types of limit states : 1. Ultimate limit states (or limit states of collapse), which deal with strength, overturning, sliding, buckling, fatigue fracture, etc. 2. Serviceability limit states, which deal with discomfort to occupancy and/or malfunction, caused by excessive deflection, crack-width, vibration, leakage, etc., and also loss of durability, etc.

TYPES OF LIMIT STATE


As per IS:456-2000, Section-5, page:67, two categories of limit state are considered in design: 1. Limit state of collapse: i) in flexure #38 ii) in compression #39 iii) in compression and uniaxial bending #39 iv) in compression and biaxial bending #39 v) in shear #40 vi) in bond vii) in torsion #41 viii)in tension 2. Limit state of serviceability: i) Limit state of deflection #42 ii) limit state of cracking #43 iii) other limit states , such as overall stability #20, fire resistance#21 ,durability#8. The usual practice is taking up each of the above conditions and providing for them separately under all the limit state of strength and stability

PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE AND STEEL

Characteristic strength property of concretethe strength below Characteristic strength is defined as


which not more than five per cent of the test results are expected to fall. Concrete is graded on the basis of its characteristic compressive strength of 150 mm size cube at 28 days and expressed in N/mm2. The grades are designated by one letter M (for mix) and a number from 10 to 80 indicating the characteristic compressive strength (fck) in N/mm2. As per IS 456 (Table 2, Page 16) concrete has three groups as i)ordinary concrete (M 10 to M 20), ii)standard concrete (M 25 to M 55) and iii) high strength concrete (M 60 to M 80).

OTHER STRENGTHS OF CONCRETE


In addition to its good compressive strength, concrete has flexural and splitting tensile strengths too. The flexural and splitting tensile strengths are obtained as described in IS 516 and IS 5816, respectively. However, the following expression gives an estimation of flexural strength (fcr) of concrete from its characteristic compressive strength (cl. 6.2.2, page-16) fcr=0.7 fck

The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a constant, defined as the ratio, within the linear elastic range, of axial stress to axial strain, under uniaxial loading. In the case of concrete under uniaxial compression, it has some validity in the very initial portion of the stress-strain curve, which is practically linear; that is, when the loading is of low intensity, and of very short duration. If the loading is sustained for a relatively long duration, inelastic creep effects come into play, even at relatively low stress levels . Besides, non-linearities are also likely to be introduced on account of creep and shrinkage. The Code (Cl. 6.2.3.1) gives the following empirical expression for the static modulus Ec (in MPa units) in terms of the characteristic cube strength (in MPa units):

YOUNGS MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF CONCRETE

POISSONS RATIO
The , for Poissons ratio value of about 0.2 is usually considered for design.

PROPERTIES OF STEEL For the purpose of reinforced concrete design, the Code grades reinforcing steel in terms of the specified yield strength. Two grades OF high strength deformed bars have been specified, viz. Fe 415, and Fe 500, conforming to specified yield strengths of 250 MPa, 415 MPa and 500 MPa respectively. The specified yield strength normally refers to a guaranteed minimum. The actual yield strength of the steel is usually somewhat higher than the specified value. The Code (Cl. 36.1) specifies that the specified yield strength may be treated as the characteristic strength of reinforcing steel. Low strength steel Fe 250 is preferred in special situations where deflections and crack widths need to be controlled or where high ductility is required, as in earthquake-resistant design .

CHARECTERSTIC AND DESIGN VALUES