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# Transfer of Energy/Heat

HOT

COLD

## absolute temperature scale - 0 Kelvin PV=nRT - gas law - Charles, Boyle?

How Do We Measure?
Basic Heat, One British Thermal Unit (Btu):
One Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F.
One pound of water (about a pint)

One Btu

A Little More to It
for each pound of H2O

ICE

144 Btu

COLD WATER

1 Btu / oF

HOT WATER

970 Btu

STEAM

How many Btus would it take to turn 5lbs of ice at 32F into 5lbs of steam at 212F?

Latent Heat

In addition to sensible heat (a change in the air temperature that is felt or sensed), cooling systems must also account for latent heat gains. Latent heat is the energy that is required to change a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas; no temperature change occurs during this process.

Steam is comprised of sensible and latent heat. The latent heat portion is equal to the heat energy used to change the water from liquid to vapor at 212oF. No change in temperature is sensed.
Steam Sensible (dry) heat Latent Heat

Cooking

People

The sensible heat input of the flame heats the water. Some of this increases the temperature of the water and some is used for latent heat, the heat of changing the water from liquid to gas.

## Lets Melt Some Ice

Rate of Heat Transfer:

BTUs per hour 12000 BTUs/hr = 1 ton (often expressed as refrigeration capacity - why?) MBH = 1000 BTUs/hr
Latent - 350 Btu/hr Sensible - 350 Btu/hr

## Three Ways Heat is Lost or Gained from a Building

Conduction

Transfers heat in a chain-like manner A buildings heat is conducted to the outdoors through the solid surfaces of walls, roofs, floor slabs, glass doors, and windows
Q = (U)(A)(DT)
Q = U = A = DT = heat gain or loss in (Btu/hr) heat transfer coefficient (Btu/ft2/oF) surface area (ft2) temperature differential

Conduction
Heat moves from hot to cold-molecules transfer heat from one to another as heat moves through them.

U = 1/R
10o F 68o F

Clapboards

Plaster

Studs

Convection

Transfers heat as warm molecules actually move from one place to another In buildings, heat is convected from the interior to the outdoors by air that leaks, or infiltrates, through cracks around windows and doors and by the exhaust and ventilation air that moves between the interior and exterior of the building

Convection
Cold air infiltrates into a space by physically moving from outdoors to indoors.

Cold air

Crack 68o F
10o F Door

Glass

Transfers heat by electromagnetic waves. Heat is radiated onto buildings by the sun during the day.
Why does it snow on the top of high mountains in Africa?

Solar energy penetrates the building wall by passing through transparent glass surfaces.

## Why Are We So Concerned About the Movement of Heat?

ASHRAE worries for us:

## 80% Comfort Zone

Acceptable ranges of operative temperature and humidity for persons clothed in typical summer and winter clothing, at light, mainly sedentary activity. (ASHRAE 55-1981)

60

70

80

90oF

## What We Are Up Against

WINTER 99% 97.5% Atlantic City Long Branch Newark New Brunswick Paterson Phillipsburg Trenton Vineland 10 10 10 6 6 1 11 8 13 13 14 10 10 6 14 11 SUMMER 1% 2.5% 92/74 93/74 94/74 92/74 94/74 92/73 91/75 91/75 89/74 90/73 91/73 89/73 91/73 89/72 88/74 89/74 WET-BULB 1% 2.5% 78 78 77 77 77 76 78 78 77 77 76 76 76 75 76 76

## Conduction Convection Radiation Equipment People Lighting Total

Add it all up and now you know how much cooling you will need

## When is a Watt Not a Watt

Conversion Factor (Watts) (3.41) = Btu/hr

100 watts

100 watts

## 8 incandescents (100 watts) turned on 15 people enter the room

How many tons of cooling will we need to meet the load? How many CFM of system air (cubic feet per minute)?

## Q(Btu/hr) = 1.08 (CFM) (DT)

- sensible heat only-

Psychrometric Chart

Humidity
80% 60%

## Wet bulb Enthalpy

60o
50o 70o

80o

40%

Moisture
20% 80% 60% 40% 20%

40o

60o

80o

100o

1200

Dry bulb

Psychrometric Chart

## cooling and dehumidifying dehumidifying only

chemical dehumidifying

## So Thats Why its Called An Evaporator

R- 22 Air Flow

Refrigerant Properties
3

Gas
2

Liquid
Condensing pressure

P r e s s u r e

Mixed condition

Evaporating pressure

Enthalpy

Gas
2 Condensing pressure

Liquid P r e s s u r e

Mixed condition
4 Evaporating pressure 1

## Putting All The Pieces Together

1 2

Enthalpy

compressor c o n d e n s e r

## Sensible and Latent Heat

Dry air (mostly oxygen and nitrogen) contains only sensible heat. The moisture in the air (water vapor) contains both sensible and latent heat.

Condensate

## Fan Coil Cooling

Rooftop Unit

ROOF

Split System
SPACE

Transfer of Energy/Heat

Airside: Yellow loop Chilled water: Green loop Refrigeration: Blue loop Heat rejection: Red loop
Fan Pump Compressor Pump

55o

55o

50o

120o

95o

95o

Evaporator

## Condenser Cooling Tower

55o

o Terminal 55 Unit

45o

38o

## 100o Expansion Valve

85o CW Valve

85o

System Configuration
The best systems: Provide comfortable environment Have relatively low operating costs Will operate inexpensively after normal business hours Are easily operated and maintained Will allow expansion or reconfiguration Operate quietly Can be cost effectively purchased and installed

System Configurations

Central Plant

Central chillers, central fans Central chillers, floor-by-floor fans Self-contained package units per floor

Unitary

HVAC Systems

Refrigeration Air Handling Room Air Distribution and Control Heating Systems

Refrigeration

## Central Packaged/floor-by-floor Distributed (heat pumps)

Central
Advantages Low operating cost Low maintenance cost Noise removed (NC30-35) Disadvantages Expensive after hours Lack of redundancy

Heat

Packaged
Advantages Low after hours Flexible Reliable Cost allocation Disadvantages Noise Higher operating costs

Distributed
Advantages Flexible Low after hours Redundancy

Air Handling

## Central - Air Handling

Advantages Low energy Low maintenance cost Noise No loss of space

X

VSD

## Floor by Floor Fans

Advantages Flexible Reliable Low after hours Cost allocation

## Floor by Floor Fans with Central Chillers

Advantages Flexible Reliable Low after hours Cost allocation

## Room Air Distribution and Control

Constant volume with reheat Variable air volume (VAV) Fan-powered variable air volume

55o 75o

55o

55o

## Fan Powered Variable Air Volume

55o

Advantages Air motion Indoor air quality Operating costs Disadvantages Operating costs Noise

80o

66o

CFM

VAV

Temperature

CFM

Temperature
VAV

CFM

Temperature

## Room Air Distribution

VAV Box Return Air Supply Air

Heating Systems

## Induction units Baseboard radiation/convectors Fan-powered VAV with heat

Induction Units
Advantages Comfort Indoor air quality Disadvantages Noisy Unattractive Takes up space Operating expense

## First Class Office Building Standards

HVAC

At least 1 zone per 1000 sq.ft. Individual control at office level Air flow - average 1.1 CFM/sq.ft. Typically 350 to 400 sq. ft. ton Supplemental cooling 70o to 76o Flexible/reliable Low operating cost 3 to 6 watts per sq.ft. sensible cooling