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Marketing Department FSU

Teaching the Millennials


Developed by Professor Terry Doyle August 21, 2012

Here is the Problem?


Teachers cant make informed decisions about which teaching approaches to use if they dont first understand how their students learn.

To understand how our students learn we must understand how their brains take in, process, and retrieve information as well as the numerous factors that affect these processes.

Millennials18-29 years of Age


Teens and young adults brought up from childhood with a continuous connection to each other and to information will be nimble, quick-acting multitaskers who count on the Internet as their external brain and who approach problems in a different way from their elders.
(PEW Survey of Internet Experts)

Switching Tasks is not Multitasking


Psychiatrist Stan Kutcher an expert on adolescent mental health says -there is emerging evidence that suggest new technologies may push the NET generations brains past conventional capacity limitations.

Switching Tasks is not Multitasking


If as straight A student can do her homework and five other tasks she clearly has developed better active working memory and better switching abilities.

Size of Millennial Population

50 million Millennials currently span the ages of 18 to 29.

Generational Comparison of Uniqueness

Millennials View of Self


When it comes to each of these traits work ethic, moral values, respect for others young adults agree that older adults have the better of it.

Love their Cell Phones

Views of Marriage and Parenthood

Hyperconnectivity
Many of the experts surveyed by Elon Universitys Imagining the Internet Center and the Pew Internet Project said: The effects of hyperconnectivity and the always-on lifestyles of young people will be mostly positive between now and 2020.

Hyperconnectivity
But the experts in this survey also predicted this generation will exhibit a thirst for instant gratification and quick fixes, a loss of patience, and a lack of deep-thinking ability due to what one referred to as fasttwitch wiring.

Demographic Profile

Demographic Profile
1. They are more ethnically and racially diverse than older adults. 2. Theyre less religious. 3. Less likely to have served in the military. 4. Are on track to become the most educated generation in American history.

Demographic Profile
Three-quarters have created a profile on a social networking site.

One-in-five have posted a video of themselves online.

Demographic Profile
Nearly four-in-ten have a tattoo and 18% have six or more).

Nearly one-in-four have a piercing in some place other than an earlobe 6X more than older adults.

Demographic Profile
Most Millennials have placed privacy boundaries on their social media profiles. And 70% say their tattoos are hidden beneath clothing.

Employment Attitudes
Their entry into careers and first jobs has been badly set back by the Great Recession.

They are more upbeat than their elders about their own economic futures as well as about the overall state of the nation.

Employment Picture
But at the moment, fully 37% of 18- to 29year-olds are unemployed or out of the workforce. The highest share among this age group in more than three decades..

Personal Views
Two-thirds say you cant be too careful when dealing with people. Yet they are less skeptical than their elders of government. More so than other generations, they believe government should do more to solve problems.

Personal Views
They are the least overtly religious American generation in modern times. One-in-four are unaffiliated with any religion, far more than the share of older adults when they were ages 18 to 29. Yet. Millennials pray about as often as their elders did in their own youth.

Personal Life

Only about six-in-ten were raised by both parents

Personal Views

Personal Views
They get along well with their parents. They respect their elders. Millennials remain the most likely of any generation to selfidentify as liberals.

Mind, Brain and Education


Education
Pedagogy Special Ed Gifted Ed

Neuroscience

Psychology

Cognitive Neuroscience Development Psychology Neuroethics Neuropsychology Neuropsychology Developmental Neuroscience

Biology
Biopsychology Neurobiology Genetics

Chemistry
Neurochemistry Psychopharmacology Toxicology

Social Science
Sociology Anthropology Philosophy

The Human Brain Forget that Right-Left Brain Myth


The human brain works as a complex design of integrated systems not through specialized and competing right and left brain functions.
(Tokuhama-Espinosa, Mind Brain and Education Science, 2011

The Human Brain


The human brain weighs three (3) pounds Contains 86 billion neurons These neurons can make 40 quadrillion connections

We are Born to Learn


The brain was meant to explore and learn

The Definition of Learning


Learning is a change in the neuronpatterns of the brain.
(Ratey, 2002)

www.virtualgalen.com/.../ neurons-small.jpg

Teachers Definition of Learning?


Learning is the ability to use information after significant periods of disuse and it is the ability to use the information to solve problems that arise in a context different (if only slightly) from the context in which the information was originally taught.
(Robert Bjork, Memories and Metamemories, 1994)

Basic Finding from Mind, Brain and Education Research

It is the one who does the work who does the learning
( Doyle , 2008).

Dendrite Growth
The picture show the dendritic growth that has taken place 20 minutes into new learning . See the new cellular material!
(Cognitive Neuroscientist Janet Zadina, 2010)

Use it or Lose it
When new material is not practiced the new dendrite tissue is reabsorbed by the brain to conserve resources.
(Dr. Janet Zardina, 2010)

Motivating Millennial Learners


Our students are already motivatedwe must discover what is motivating them.

James Zull, The Art of Changing the Brain

Motivating Millennial Learners


Students react in powerful ways to the facial expressions and body language we use in our classrooms. This reaction is caused by their mirror neurons. ( New Scientist, May 14, 2008)

Motivating Learners to Engage


1. When the information or skill is made to have personal relevance.

Motivating Learners to Engage


2. When the course content responds to the survival needs of the learner.

Surviving the Future


U.S. Department of Labor reports that an 18 years old today will have 10-14 different jobs by the time they are 38.

Surviving the Future


Between the dawn of civilization and 2003 there were five exabytes (an exabytes = 1 quintillion bytes) of data collected.
Don Tapscott, Design Your Mind

Today 5 exabytes of data gets collected every two days.

Soon it will be five exabytes every few minutes.

Surviving The Future


Currently there are 320 million Chinese honor students and 280 million Indian honor students that are interested in competing for the same jobs our college students want.

Motivating Learners to Engage


3. The teaching that engages the brain in multimodal, multisensory, experiential and diverse experiences promotes learning.

The human brain enjoys this kind of active engagement.

Motivating Learners to Engage


4. Time on task. Learning something new takes much longer than most students think. It requires a great deal of practice.

Motivating Learners to Engage


5. When teachers embed facts in a meaningful context they make the learning process much easier and enhance the likelihood of recall in the future.

Motivating Learner to Engage


6. The brain doesnt learn in a linear structured and predictable fashion.

The use of various sensory channels at the same time are best especially for hard to learn concepts

Motivating Learner to Engage


7. The human brain seeks and quickly detects novelty. Teacher who know this can design novel activities that will enhance classroom learning and long term recall.

Motivating Millennial Learners


It is in our nature to want to have some say and input to experiences that have great importance to our lives. Giving students choices is a key to building community and increasing involvement.
(James Zull, The Art of Changing the Brain)

Motivating Millennial Learners Affective Filter Hypothesis


How a learner feels influences what he/she is able to learn.

How, what and why we learn is significantly impacted by our emotions.


(S. Krashen (1981, 1982)

Affective Filter Hypothesis

Our emotions impact our decision making which is at the core of human learning.

What Enhances Students Readiness and Motivation to Learn


To maximize its ability to learn the human brain needs: 1.Oxygen 2. Hydration 3.Food (glucose) 4. Exercise 5. Sleep

The Brain and Oxygen


The brain accounts for only 2% of total body weight. It uses 25% of the bodys oxygen supply depleting 1 pints of blood per minute. It uses up to 30% of the total energy produced by the body.

Water and the Brain


Water is brain food!
In a study by Kempton and colleagues they found

Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.
(Kempton KJ, et al. 2010)

Water and the Brain


Brain cells need two times more energy than other cells in the body. Water provides this energy more effectively than any other substance.
(Allen, Advanced Learning and Development
Institute)

Water and the Brain


Water is also needed for the brain's production of hormones and neurotransmitters. Nerve transmission requires one-half of all the brains energy.

(Allen, Advanced Learning and Development Institute)

Food and the Brain


Inhaling carbohydrates causes blood glucose levels to yo-yo. As a result the brain, which relies on glucose for energy, is left either glutted or gasping, neither of which makes for optimal cognitive functioning.
(Edward M. Ned Hallowell, MD)

Food and Learning


Learning is helped when we rely on the complex carbohydrates found in fruits, whole grains, and vegetables. In general, a balanced diet.
(Edward M. Ned Hallowell, MD)

Exercise and Learning

Movement and Learning


Natural selection developed a human brain to solve problems of survival in outdoor, unstable environments while in almost constant motion.
( Dr. John Medina, Developmental Molecular Biologist, University of Washington and Author of Brain Rules)

Exercise, Learning and Motivation


Exercise increases production of neurotransmitters that help: 1.Focus and attention 2.Motivation 3. Patience 4. Mood (more optimistic)
(Ratey, 2008)

Exercise Increases Production of BDNF


BDNF
(Brain-derived neurotrophic factor )

Enhances the wiring of neurons.

(Ratey, 2008)

Miracle Grow for the Brain

Exercise Produces BDNF


Improves brain health

Is a stress inoculator Makes the brain cells more resilient

How Sleep Affects Learning, Memory and Motivation

Sleep and Memory


Memories are made during sleep. It takes six hours of sleep to just stabilize new memories.

The brain also consolidates the new memories during REM sleep.
To make our memories requires seven to eight hours of sleep each night. Gyrgy Buzsaki,
professor at the Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience at Rutgers University

Rehearsal of Learning before Sleep


A 2012 study out of the University of Notre Dame confirms that sleeping directly after learning something new is beneficial for memory.

Sleep and Learning


Not only are memories for everything important that you learned during the day made during sleep but sleep allows the brain to clear space for new learning to occur the next day.
(Bryce Mander, a post-doctoral fellow in psychology at UC Berkeley)

Awake but Off Line


New findings suggest that when the brain is sleep deprived even though the person is fully awake the neurons used for important mental task switch off.

(Chiara Corelli,2011 Nature)

Classroom Management
Keys
1. Students have input to the rules and regulations. 2. Every rule and regulation is spelled out clearly in the syllabus no surprises.

Classroom Management
3. All rules and regulations are enforced fairly and equally across the student group. If issues arise not covered in the syllabus reserve the right ( in the syllabus)to handle them on an as needed basis.

Use I Statements
4. Use I statements to address student behavioral issues Example I would appreciate it if you would not talk while I am talking.

What About Serious Issues


1. Always handle privatelynever in front of the class. 2. Reduce the emotional energy as much as possible 3. Clearly and carefully state what your concern is. 4. Stay focused on the singular issuedont make generalizations. 5. Outline all possible solutions and penalties dont make threats. 6. Bring in outside help if neededStudent Affairs, Office of Judicial Services, Department Head, Dean

References
1. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19826565.600-facial-expressions-excite-mirror neurons.html The New Scientist May 14, 2008Facial expressions excite mirror neurons 2. http://sociaalopstap.nl/upload/PresentatieMarcThioux.pdf, Autism, Mirror neurons & Facial expressions,M a r c T h i o u x ,J o j a n n e k e B a s t i a a n s e n , & C h r i s t i a n K e y s e r. 3. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/02/24/millennials-confident-connected-open-tochange/,PEW Internet and American Life Project,-Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change .