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Lewins Force Field Analysis Model

Force Field Analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a decision. With the help of driving forces like
info. Tech., competition, demographics, leadership needs a Continuous change process model is prepared-

Forces for change Reorganize & define problem Change Agents Problem-solving

Measure, evaluate & control

Implementation of change

Transition management
old state- unfreeze- change- Refreeze- New state

Richard Beckard & David Gleichers Seven level Change Model

Improving efficiency through doing things rightchanging attitude, aptitude & efficiency through experts help. Doing right things for effectiveness Prioritize the right things. Acc. to Paretos principle 20% right acts accounts for 80% pay off. Cutting the unnecessary things- 80% waste activities bring 20%pay off, so correct processes quickly & easily Doing things better-20 % should be improved for more value addition Doing things other people are doing-copying, learning from benchmarks & reverse engineering

Doing things no one else is doing-cutting edges, enhancing, adapting, reengineering, revolutionizing processes & procedures Doing impossible- Breakthrough in technology, market & resource constraints ,radical change in risky environment This model indicates the organizations dissatisfaction with present state; For future goals the possible immediate tactical action should be stronger than the resistance within the organization.

Kotters 8 step model

By making real & relevant objectives, inspire people & increase urgency Build a guiding team-right people in right place Get the right vision Communicate for buy in Empower action- constructive feedback & support from leaders

Create short term wins Dont let up-encourage determination & persistence Make change stick- reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion & new change leaders. Weave change into culture.

Sources of Resistance to Change

Ignorance: a failure to understand the situation or the problem Mistrust: motives for change are considered suspicious Disbelief: a feeling that the way forward will not work

Sources of Resistance to Change (contd.)

Loss: change has unacceptable personal costs Inadequacy: the benefits from the change are not seen as sufficient Anxiety: fear of being unable to cope with the new situation. Comparison: the way forward is disliked because an alternative is preferred Demolition: change threatens the destruction of existing social networks.

Types of Resistance
Functional Resistance:
critically assessing whether change will lead to improvements exploring the personal consequences of change.

Dysfunctional Resistance:
avoiding dealing with urgent and pressing issues declining to work on what really needs to be done.


A The individual, group or organisation level of dissatisfaction with the status quo B A clear and shared picture of a better future how things could be C The capacity of individuals, groups and the organisation to change (orientation, competence and skill) D Acceptable and do-able first action steps E The cost (financial, time, aggro) of making the change to individuals, groups and the organisation.

The Change Equation

A+B+C+D must be greater than E

A 4-Stage Process For Dealing With Resistance

Consider Different People Work With Values and Beliefs Understand and Relate to Needs and Problems Tailor Your Message to Your Audience.

Consider Different People

Identify the adopters - the staff ,the change will affect Identify key professional and organisational groups Identify crucial opinion-leaders in the organisation.

Work With Values and Beliefs

Assess whats important to people with regard to the change at personal, professional and organisational levels Understand and relate to what people consider important.

Understand and Relate To Needs and Problems

For all key players, assess Whats in it for Me? Dont be too precious about the detail of the approach proposed Understand peoples problems and needs from different perspectives.

Tailor Your Message To Your Audience

Do homework - get to know whats important to individuals and groups Keep the message as simple as possible Use case studies and examples to show benefits Highlight multiple pay-offs from change Use both informal & formal communication.

Building culture for change by managing people for change

To estimate in advance the impact of change Technology requirement & acquisition strategy Employees behavior & motivation level; Work processes & productivity

Culture has to be prepared to implement & disseminate change effectively throughout the organization by Communication of proper reasons, aims & ways to respond positively & cope with it Dont impose but give a chance to decide how it will be managed Participation & involvement in workshops, staff surveys, training, feedback & empathy Empower people & teams to find their own solutions& responses to facilitate managers By good leadership styles(tolerance, compassion) win the trust of employees Describe, design, support & review the effectiveness of change

Reduce conflicts & increase participation Recognition of creativity

Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization as it is in the natural world. The more effectively you deal with change, the more likely you are to thrive. Adaptation might involve establishing a structured methodology for responding to changes in the business environment (such as a fluctuation in the economy, or a threat from a competitor)

Role of leadership
Leader should Encourage collaboration rather than competition Encourage Customer orientation Encourage Training & coaching Encourage Quality consciousness Encourage proper communication Encourage Teamwork Encourage participation of workforce Encourage Creativity & productivity Encourage Healthy culture with lesser conflicts Encourage positive synergy in team

As a team leader he should help in Proper Management of new product development & its commercialization Reduction of lead time from R&D to market development Speeding up production & new product launch Attainment of technology leadership Attainment of National & global competitiveness Utilizing people lever for organizational growth( reducing resistance, motivating, career planning, participation, reward etc.) Practice of Kaizen Quality circles etc.

Managing Transformations
Transformation means extreme psychological or character change. There can be business transformation through technological transformation ,implementation transformation & human transformation.

Process by which an organisation achieves and maintain operational and competitive advantage by:
Changes in technology Changes in operational concepts Changes in organisational structure

Transformation process
Transformation requires that continuous improvement is necessary, but not sufficient.
Introduction of major changes Consolidation Sustenance and growth

Introduction of major changes

Changing the culture of organisation Process systems engineering Enhanced training Quality improvement Making changes to organizations, roles and responsibilities Increased functional integration Board reconstitution Encourage innovation

Continued focus on key operating parameters Corporate initiative on sourcing, channel and service Requiring leadership with accountability Leveraging reach and service business potential Senior management commitment Increase in integration Focus on performance Prioritization of efforts

Sustenance and growth

Ever increasing emphasis on mission assurance Senior management commitment Further improving integration Reviewing and improving business strategy Sustaining cost and quality optimization Reinforcing performance culture Sustaining operational efficiency improvement programme.