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# Control Engineering Coursework

## SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH

P.M.MENGHAL
FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS MILTARY COLLEGE OF ELECTRONICS & MECHNICAL ENGINEERING,TRIMULGHERRY,SECUNDERABAD -500 015 ANDRA PRADESH INDIA Mobile: 9440635370
Email:prashant_menghal@yahoo.co.in prashantmenghal@gmail.com

WARNING!
I claim no originality in all these notes. These are the compilation from various sources for the purpose of delivering lectures. I humbly acknowledge the wonderful help provided by the original sources in this compilation.
For best results, it is always suggested you read the source material

## SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH (SFG)

Signal Flow Graph is developed by S.J.Mason A Signal Flow Graph is a graphical representation of the relationship between the variables of a set of linear algebraic equation.
R(s) + E(s)

G1
B(s)

A(S)

G2 H

C(s)

R(s) 1

E(s)

G1

A(s) G2

C(s)

H 1 B(s)

NODE: It represents a system variables which is equal to sum of all incoming signal at node. Outgoing signals from the node doesn't affects the value of node variable. Ex: R,E,A,B BRANCH: A signal travel along a branch from one node to another node in the direction indicated by the branch arrow and it gets multiplied by gain or transmittance of the branch. INPUT NODE: It is node with only outing branches Ex: R is input node. OUTPUT NODE Or SINK NODE: It is node with only incomeing branches
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R(s) 1

R(s) 1

E(s)

G1

A(s) G2

C(s)

C(s)

1
B(s)

PATH:It is unidirectional transversal of connected branches in the direction of the branch arrow such that no node is transverse more than one. FORWARD PATH: It is path from input node to output node. Ex:REAC LOOP OR FEEDBACK PATH :It is path which originates and terminated at the same node. DE-93 Control Engg Asst Professor P M Menghal Ex: EACBE

SELF LOOP :It is loop consisting single branch. NON TOUCHING LOOP: Loop are said to be non touching if they don't have any node in common. FORWARD PATH GAIN:It is product of the branch gain encountered while transverseing the forward path. Ex: P1 = G1 x G2 x1x1 = G1G2 FEEDBACK PATH GAIN:It is the product of branch gain Encountered while transverseing loop or feedback path. Ex: L = G1G2(-H)

## MASONS GAIN FORMULA

The relationship between an input variable and an output Variable of signal flow graph is given by the net gain between the input and output node is known as overall gain of the system. Masons gain formula for the determination of the overall transfer function is given by
T = Pkk

T = Overall gain or Transfer function Pk = Gain of the kth forward path k=value of for that part of graph not touching to kth DE-93 Control Engg Asst Professor P M Menghal 9 forward path

= Determinant of graph. = 1- [ Summation of loop gain of individual loop] + [Summation of gain product of all possible combination of two non touching loop] -[Summation of gain product of all possible combination of three non touching loop]-----

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

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Type-I Construction of Signal Flow graph from given set of equation and hence determination of overall transfer function. Pb:Consider a system describe by following set of equation x2 = a12 x1 + a32 x3 + a42 x4 + a52 x5 - - - - - - - - - -(1) x3 = a23x2 x4 = a34x3 + a44 x4 x5= a35 x3 + a45x4 - - - - - - - - - -(2) - - - - - - - - - -(3) - - - - - - - - - -(4)

## Where x1 = input variable,x5 = output variable Find overall gain T = x5 / x1

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Solution: There are five variables x1,x2,x3,x4 and x5 which represents node in Signal Flow graph. Step1: Signal Flow Graph for equation1 a52 a42 a12 x1 x2 a32 x3 x4 x5

## Step2: Signal Flow graph for equation 2

a23
x1
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x2

x3

x4

x5
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## Step 4: Signal Flow graph for equation 4

a45 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5

a35

13

a12 x1 x2 a23 x3

x5

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Step1: Forward Path There are two forward path having path gain a12 a45 a 23 a x1 x2 x3 x4 34 x5

a12 x1 x2

a23

x3

x4 a35

x5

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a42

a44
a34 x4 x4 a52

x2

x3

L2

L3

x2

x2

a23 x

x5 a35 L5

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Step 2: Determination Of (a) Individual loop: There are five individual loops having loop gains L1= a23 a32 L2= a23 a34 a42 L3 = a44 L4 = a23 a34 a45 a52 L5 = a23 a35 a52

(b) Two Non-touching loops: There are two possible Combinations of two non touching loops L22 = Gain of loop L1 X Gain of loop L3 = a23 a32 a44 L33 = Gain of loopL3 X Gain of loopL5 = a23 a35 a52 a44
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## = 1-(L1+ L2+L3 + L4 +L5 ) + (L22 + L33)

= 1-{ (a23 a32 + a23 a34 a42 + a44 + a23 a34 a45 a52 + a23 a35 a52) +(a23 a32 a44 + a23 a35 a52 a44)} Step3:Determination of k No of forward path (k )= 2 1= Value of for that part of the graph not touching to first forward path = 1-(0)=1 2 = 1- a44 Step4: Determination of Overall transfer function by Masons gain formula T = PkK = P11 + P22 DE-93 Control Engg Asst Professor P M Menghal

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## (a12 a23 a34 a45) + (a12 a23 a35)(1-a44)

T= 1-{ (a23 a32 + a23 a34 a42 + a44 + a23 a34 a45 a52+ a23a35a52) +(a23 a32 a44 + a23 a35 a52 a44)}

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Pb: Find the transfer function of the system using Masonsgain formula.

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C(s)

G4
1 R(s)

G6 1 C(s)

P1 = G1G2G3

P2 = G4G6

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## Step2:Determination of (a) Individual Loop

L1 = -G1H1 L2 = -G2H2 L3 = -G3H3 L5 = -G4G6H3H2H1 (b) Two Non touching loops L11 = G1H1G3H3 L22 = -G1H1G5 L33 = -G2H2G5 L44 = -G3H3G5 (c) Three non touching loop DE-93 Control Engg Asst Professor P M Menghal L13 = G1H1G3 H3G5

L4 = G5

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= 1-{[L1+L2+L3+L4+L5] + [L11+L22+L33+L44]- L13]} = 1+ (G1H1 + G2H2 + G3H3+G4G6H3H2H1- G5) -(G1H1G3H3 -G1H1G5-G2H2G5-G3H3G5) + G1H1G3H3G5 Step3:Determination of k No Of forward path =2 1 = 1- G5 2 = 1 + G2H2 Step 4: Determination of Transfer Function C(s)/R(s) = G1G2G3(1- G5) + G4 G6 (1 + G2H2) 1+ (G1H1 + G2H2 + G3H3+G4G6H3H2H1- G5) -(G1H1G3H3- G1H1G5 - G2H2G5 - G3H3G5) +(G1H1G3H3G5)
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Pb: The following equation describes a control system. Construct the signal flow graph for it and obtain following transfer functions (i) Y2 / U1 for U2 = 0 and (ii) Y2/U2 for U1 =0 Where Y2 = Output node and U1 and U2 are the inputs Y1 = a11Y1 + a12Y2 + b1U1 Y2 = a21Y1 + a22 Y2 + b2U2 Ans: Y2/U1 =b1a21/(1-a12a21-a11-a22+a11a22)
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## Y2/U2 =b2(1-a11)/(1-a12a21-a11- a22+a11a22)

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Type II: Construction of Signal Flow Graph from given block diagram and hence determination of transfer function
Construct an SFG from a given block diagram select node at (a) Input Signal (b) Output Signal (c) Take off point (d) Output signal of summing point NOTE: Connect the other point of summing point (feedback) to the output node of summing point.

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Pb:For the control system shown determine overall transfer function C(s)/R(s) and Signal to Noise ratio BY SFG method
N(s) R(s)

G2 + G1 d G3 +
C(s)

+ -

+ a

+
b

H2

+
f

G4

H1

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N a

G2

b G1 d

G3

-H2
H1 -G4

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Case1:Determination of C/R Consider R is acting alone, while N=0 Step1: Forward Path There are four forward path P1=G1G3 P2 = G1G2 P3 = G4H2G1G3 P4=G1G2G4H2 Step2:Determination Of (a) Individual Loop L1 = -G1G3H1H2 L2 = -G1G2H1H2 (b) Two and Three non touching loop There are no combination of two or three non touching loop. = 1-(L1+ L2)= (1 + G1G3H1H2 + G1G2H1H2) Step3:Determination of 1 =1 2 =1 3=1 4=1 Because all the forward path are in touch with all the loops
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## Step :4 Applying Masons Gain Formula C P11 + P22 + P33 + P44

=
R G1G3 + G1G2 + G4H2G1G3 + G1G2G4H2

=
(1 + G1G3H1H2 + G1G2H1H2)

Case2: Determination of C/N Consider N is acting alone while R=0 Step1: Forward Path P1 =G1G3 P2 = G1G2 Step2:Determination Of is same as graph is same DE-93 Control Engg Asst Professor P M Menghal

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Step3: Determination of k 1 = 1 2 = 1 Step4:Applying Mason Gain Formula C G 1G 3 + G 1G 2 = N (1 + G1G3H1H2 + G1G2H1H2) Output due to Signal R

## Signal to Noise ratio =

Output due to noise signal N G1G3 + G1G2 + G4H2G1G3 + G1G2G4H2 =

G1G3 + G1G2

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Pb.Develop the signal flow for the block diagram and evaluate the transfer function.

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

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Type III :Construction of Block diagram or SFG from a given network and hence determination of transfer function Pb: Develop the block diagram for the following network and reduce it. R1 R2

Vi

C1

C2

RL Vo

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R1
1

R2
2 3

Vi(s)
I1(s)

1/C1s I2(s)

1/C2s I3(s)

RL Vo(s)

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

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Appling to Kirchoffs voltage law to loop1 Vi = R1I1(s) + 1/C1s [ I1(s)- I2(s)] I1(s) = [C1s/R1C1s+1] Vi(s) + I2(s) [1/R1C1s+1] - - - - - (1) Block diagram representation of equation 1

Vi(s)

C1s/(R1C1s+1)

+
+

I1(s)

1/(R1C1s+1)

I2(s)

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Applying KVL to Loop 2 -1/C1s[ I2(s) I1(s)] R2I2(s)- 1/C2s[ I2(s)-I3(s)] = 0 I2(s)[1/C1s + R2 + 1/C2s] - [1/C1s] I1(s) - I3[1/C2s] =0 I2(s) = C2 C2+C1+R2C1C2s I1(s) + I3(s) C1 C2+C1+R2C1C2s ----------- 2

I1(s)

C2

C2+C1+R2C1C2s

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Appling KVL to loop 3 -1/C2s[ I3(s)- I2(s)] RLI3(s) =0 I3(s) = I2(s) [ 1/1+RLC2s] ----------------------(3)

## Block diagram modeling for equation 3

I2(s) 1 1+RLC2s I3(s)

RL

Vo(s)

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## Combining all the block diagram

H2
Vi(s) G1 + + H1 I2(s) I1(s) G2 I2(s) Vo(s) G3 I3(s) G4

G1 =C1s/(R1C1s+1)
C2 G2 =

H1 =1/(R1C1s+1) C1 H2 =

C2+C1+R2C1C2s
G3 =1/1+ RLC2s
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C2+C1+R2C1C2s
G4 = RL

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Vo

RLC1C2S

= Vi (1+R1C1s){(C1+C2+R1C1C2s)(1+R2C2s)-C1-(1+R2C2s)C2

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