Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

Motivation

Motivation
It is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction, persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.

What Is Motivation?
Direction

Intensity

Persistence

Prentice Hall, 2001

Chapter 6

How hard a person tries

Intensity

Direction

Efforts that is directed towards, and consistent with, the organizations goals is the kind of effort that we should be seeking.

How long a person can maintain effort

Persistence

Direction

Intensity

Persistence

Prentice Hall, 2001

Chapter 6

Theories of Motivation
Needs theories Maslows hierarchy of needs Herzbergs two factor theory Process theories Expectancy Theory Goal Setting Theory

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological

Prentice Hall, 2001

Chapter 6

10

Physiological : Includes hunger, thirst, shelter. Safety : Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social : Includes affection, belongings, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem : Includes internal esteem factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention.

Self actualization : The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving ones potential and self fulfillement.

Theory X and Theory Y


Theory X : Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Since they dislike work, they must be controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

Theory Y: Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. People will exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province those in management positions.

Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction


Traditional view
Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

Herzberg's view
Motivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction No satisfaction

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation

Hygiene Factors
Company policies Quality of supervision Relations with others Personal life Rate of pay Job security Working conditions

Motivational Factors
Achievement Career advancement Personal growth Job interest Recognition Responsibility