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Unit 1.

1 Molecules
Biology Department Watford Girls Grammar School

Introduction
For each of the following you should be able to: Describe the properties Know the general formulae & structure Understand the role in animals & plants
Water Carbohydrate s Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

H +

Water

O H +

Water is a polar molecule It forms weak hydrogen bonds It remains a liquid over a wide temperature range Water molecules stick to one another = cohesion (surface tension) Water molecules stick to other substances = adhesion (capillarity)

Water
It has a high specific heat capacity so water can maintain a reasonably constant temperature (homeostasis) It has a high latent heat of vaporisation so animals use water to cool themselves It is less dense as a solid (ice) and ice is a poor conductor Water is a good solvent

Carbohydrates
Contain the elements Carbon Hydrogen & Oxygen There are 3 types:
Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

Monosacharides
(CH2O)n If n=3, triose (glyceraldehyde) If n=5, pentose (fructose, ribose) If n=6, hexose (glucose, galactose) Monosaccharides are used for
o o

Energy Building blocks

C C O C C C

Isomerism
They can exist as isomers: & glucose
OH

OH

Disaccharides
Formed from two monosaccharides Joined by a glycosidic bond A condensation reaction:
glucose + glucose maltose glucose + galactose lactose glucose + fructose sucrose

Condensation reaction
C C C C C O C OH OH C C C C C O C

Condensation reaction
C C C C C O C OH OH C C C C C O C

Condensation reaction
C C C C C O C O C C C C C O C

H2O

Condensation reaction
C C C C C O C1 O 4C C C C C O C

A disaccharide

1,4 glycosidic bond

Polysaccharides
Polymers formed from many monosaccharides Three important examples:
o o o

Starch Glycogen Cellulose

Starch
Insoluble store of glucose in plants formed from two glucose polymers: Amylose Amylopectin

-glucose 1,4 glycosidic bonds Spiral structure

-glucose 1,4 and some 1,6 glycosidic bonds Branched structure

Glycogen
Insoluble compact store of glucose in animals -glucose units 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds Branched structure

Cellulose

O O O

Structural polysaccharide in plants -glucose 1,4 glycosidic bonds H-bonds link adjacent chains

Lipids
Made up of C, H and O Can exist as fats, oils and waxes They are insoluble in water They are a good source of energy (38kJ/g) They are poor conductors of heat Most fats & oils are triglycerides

Triglycerides
Formed by esterification a condensation reaction between 3 fatty acids and glycerol:
H H H C O H

Glycerol
C
C

O
O

Fatty acids
Carboxyl group (-COOH) attached to a long non-polar hydrocarbon chain (hydrophobic):
O H C H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H

C
O H

A saturated fatty acid (no double bonds)

O C O H

H C
C H H C H

H C
H H C H

C H

H C H H

A monounsaturated fatty acid


O C O H H C H C H C C H C H C H C H

A polyunsaturated fatty acid

Esterification
H H H C C C O H O O H H C C O H H H C H H C H H C H

Glycerol

Fatty acid

Esterification
H H H C C C O H O O H H C C O H H H C H H C H H C H

Glycerol

Fatty acid

Esterification
H H H C C C O H O O O H H C C H H C H H C H H C H

Glycerol

Fatty acid

Esterification
H H H C C C O H O O H H C C H H C H H C H H C H

Ester bond
H O H

water

Esterification
This happens three times to form a triglyceride:

glycerol

fatty acids

Phospholipids
One fatty acid can be replaced by a polar phosphate group:

hydrophilic phosphate glycerol Hydrophobic fatty acids

Functions of lipids
Protection of vital organs To prevent evaporation in plants & animals To insulate the body They form the myelin sheath around some neurones As a water source (respiration of lipids) As a component of cell membranes

Proteins
Made from C H O N & sometimes S Long chains of amino acids Properties determined by the aa sequence

Amino acids
~20 aa Glycine R=H Alanine R=CH3
H H N amine

O
C H C O H carboxyl

Peptide bonding
R C C O

H N H

O H

H N H

R
C H C

O O H

Peptide bonding
R C C O

H N H

O H

H N H

R
C H C

O O H

Peptide bonding
R C C O H H O

H N H

R
N C H C

O O H

Peptide bonding
R C C O

H N H

R
N C H C

O O H

H
Peptide bond

H H O water

A condensation reaction

Peptide bonding
R
C H C

H N H

O
N H

R
C H C

O O H

A dipeptide

Primary structure
The sequence of aa is know as the primary structure The aa chain is a polypeptide

Secondary structure
H-bonding forms between the COOH and the -NH2 of adjacent aa This results in the chains folding:

Secondary structure

-helix

-pleated sheet

Tertiary structure
Bonding between R-groups gives rise to a 3D shape H-bonds =O HN Ionic bonds NH3-COOaffected by pH Disulphide bridge --CH2S-SCH2affected by temp & pH

affected by reducing agents

Quaternary structure
Some proteins have more than one polypeptide chain Each chain is held together in a precise structure eg Haemoglobin

Types of proteins
Fibrous proteins
o o o

e.g. collagen Insoluble structural

Globular proteins
o o o

e.g.enzymes Soluble 3D shape

Functions of proteins
Enzymes Transport Movement Cell recognition Channels Structure Hormones Protection Amylase Haemoglobin Actin & myosin Antigens Membrane proteins Collagen & keratin Insulin Antibodies

Nucleic acids
DNA & RNA Made up of nucleotides:

phosphate

base pentose sugar

Nucleotides
2 types of base:
Pyrimidines o o o o

Cytosine C Thymine T Adenine A Guanine G

Purines

Complimentary base pairing


Adenine will only bind with Thymine Cytosine will only bind with Guanine
T A C G

DNA structure

nucleotide

Condensation polymerisation of the deoxyribose nucleotides

Replication
During cell division the DNA must replicate The DNA double helix unwinds The exposed bases bind to free floating nucleotides in the nucleoplasm DNA polymerase binds the complimentary nucleotides Replication is semiconservative

The genetic code


The sequence of nucleotide bases forms a code Each code word has three letter a triplet code Each codon codes for a specific amino acid e.g:
o o o o

GGG = proline CGG = glycine ATG = tyrosine ACT = stop (no amino acid)

Protein synthesis
The DNA codes for proteins A copy of DNA (mRNA) is made in the nucleus (transcription) The mRNA is used to make a protein (translation) in the cytoplasm

Transcription
The DNA polymerase unwinds the DNA Free nucleotides join onto complimentary bases RNA polymerase links adjacent nucleotides The completed mRNA moves out of the nucleus

Transcription

Amino acid activation


transferRNA:

tRNA binds onto a specific amino acid

Translation
mRNA binds to a ribosome tRNA carries an amino acid to the ribosome

Translation
A second tRNA brings another aa The two aas bind The process repeats

Translation
A polypeptide chain forms Eventually a stop codon is reached

The Human Genome Project


A multinational project aimed at sequencing the entire human genome Visit the Human Genome Web site:

www.ornl.gov/hgmis/project/about.html www.sanger.ac.uk

Acknowledgements
Animated cell models used by kind permission of The Virtual Cell website:

Feel free to use this presentation for educational non-profit making purposes.

Quiz
1. Which of the following is not an important property of water 1.Its polar nature 2.Its low specific heat capacity 3.Its high latent heat of vaporisation 4.Its low density in solid form

Quiz
2. The general formula for a monosaccharide is: 1.(CH2O)n 2.(CHO)n 3.C(H2O)n 4.CnH2On

Quiz
3. Sucrose is made up of 1.glucose + fructose 2.glucose + galactose 3.glucose + glucose 4.galactose + fructose

Quiz
4. Amylopectin is made up of: 1.-1,4 glycosidic bonds 2.-1,4 & -1,4 glycosidic bonds 3.-1,4 & 1,6 glycosidic bonds 4.-1,4 & 1,6 glycosidic bonds

Quiz
5. Formation of a triglyceride does NOT involve: 1.A condensation reaction 2.Esterification 3.Polymerisation 4.A reaction between 3 fatty acids & glycerol

Quiz
6. The general formula of a saturated fatty acid is: 1.CnH2nO2 2.Cn(H2O)n 3.(CH2O)n 4.(CH2)nO

Quiz
7. Which of the following is not responsible for a proteins tertiary structure 1.ionic bonding 2.covalent bonding 3.hydrogen bonding 4.disulphide bonding

Quiz
8. Which of these is not an amino acid: 1.alanine 2.cysteine 3.glycine 4.cytosine

Quiz
9. Which process involves tRNA: 1.transciption 2.translation 3.DNA replication 4.gene mutation

Quiz
10. The formation of RNA does not involve: 1.ribose sugar 2.thymine 3.removal of water 4.phosphate

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Thats right water has a high specific heat capacity
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Thats right
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Thats right, cytosine is an organic base
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Thats right, in RNA thymine is replaced with uracil
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