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Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology

NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT & SYSTEM


LED 30203
LECTURER : Ir. MUHAMMAD NASIR BIN MOKHTAR

By :Nurul Ashikin Noor Shahirah

A satellite is basically any object that orbits or revolves around another object in space. For example the Moon is satellite of Earth and Earth is satellite of the Sun

Messages sent to the satellite from ground station are uplink and messages transmitted from satellite to Earth are downlink.

Satellites get into orbit by riding on a rocket or by riding in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The rocket launch is aimed straight up at first best minimized fuel consumption. Then, rocket control mechanism uses the Inertial Guidance System (IGS). IGS controlled the rocket very precisely to insert a satellite into the desired orbit.

1st stage contains the rockets and fuel. After all the fuel has been used up, it will break off and falls to the ground. 2nd stage- contains smaller rockets with their own fuel tanks that ignite after 1st stage finished. Used to send the satellite into space. Upper stage connected to the satellite itself, enclosed in a metal shield fairing. Fairing - Protects the satellite while it is being launched and makes it easier for the launch vehicle to travel through the resistance of the Earths atmosphere Satellite reach its desired orbital height, unfurls its solar panels and communication antennas, takes its place in orbit with other satellites and provides communication to public.

Elliptical Orbit

Circular Orbit

There are two factor that how satellite can stay in orbit, which is:

Velocity, or the speed it would travel in a straight line The gravitational pull between Earth and the satellite

Depends upon mathematical laws called orbital dynamics. In order for satellite to go into orbit, it must have some forward motion. Forward motion produced inertia, which tends to keep the satellite moving in straight line. Gravity tends to pull the satellite toward the earth.

Wide/Global coverage Minimum human dependency: Autonomous and freedom Minimum terrestrial infrastructure : Less towers Efficient : Everywhere, anytime

High initial cost It has propagation delay Regulatory licensing requirement and limited orbital parking slots.

Mobile communications Vehicle tracking Remote monitoring control Defense communications Maritime and air navigation Television distribution Digital audio broadcasting

As for the conclusion, we manage to understand how the satellite launch into space and stays in orbit. The satellite is launch to the space by riding a rocket or by riding in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The rocket contains some part that will separate one by one according to their stage. It will left satellite alone in space on its orbit. Then, the satellite will provides communication with other satellite to public.