You are on page 1of 28



Definition of Research
Research is defined as a careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster, 1984). Research is a systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing information (data) for specific purpose and the research methods (or methodology) are the ways one collects and analyses data. It means searching for a theory, for testing theory, or for solving a problem. A systematic quest for undiscovered truth (Leedy, 1974). A continuing process

Purposes of Research
1. To improve quality of life 2. To solve problems Examples: It was found through research that lung cancer is associated with smoking and so campaign against smoking was intensified. The development of the computers which are used in the banking system ATM.

Uses of Research as a Scientific Process

Determine/describe an existing situation (situation analysis) Describe a population (people, objects, institutions, etc.) Compare two conditions or groups of population Determine existence, degree, or nature of relationship between two or more factors. Evaluate and/or compare effectiveness of an intervention, treatment or exposure Predict the value of a certain characteristics

Characteristics of Research
1. Research is logical and objective. 2. Research is expert, systematic and accurate investigation. 3. Research gathers new knowledge and data from primary and secondary data/sources. 4. Research endeavors to organize data in quantitative (measurable) terms if possible and to express these data in numerical measures. 5. Researchers require courage. 6. Research is carefully recorded and reported.

General Types of Research


Descriptive Research
The multiple intelligence profile of EA students SY 2010-2011 The insecticidal properties of pepper


Explanatory or Correlation Research

Ethanol-in-water concentration and its refractive index and specific gravity Voltage and resistance


Intervention or Experimental Research

Durian (Durion Zibethinus Murr.) peelings: substance to enhance soil quality The effectiveness of a developed general chemistry software instructional aid

Other Dichotomies of Research


Pure Basic vs. Applied Research

Pure basic research to describe an existing situation and/or explaining certain patterns of behavior using either or both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Applied research to see an immediate solution to a problem.


Exploratory vs. Explanatory Research

Exploratory research to describe an existing problem situation and examine the underlying factors that contribute to the emergence of the problem, the nature of which is not yet well known. Explanatory research to understand or explain a prevailing situation or explain a relationship between factors which may have already been identified in exploratory studies, and why the relationship exists.


Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research

Quantitative research to quantify or reflect in numbers the observations on the characteristics of the population being studied. Qualitative research emphasizes verbal descriptions and explanations of human behavior and practices in an attempt to understand how the units or members of the study population experience or explain their own world.

Research Methods
1. 2. 3. 4. Experimental Method Survey Method Historical Method Content Analysis

Research Process

Identification and Definition of a Research Problem

Statement of Research Problems/Objectives Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Formulation Operational Definition of Variables

2. 3. 4. 5.

Formulation of Hypotheses Choosing Appropriate Research Design Identification of Target Population and Sampling Data Collection
Preparation of Research Instrument Reliability Testing and Validation Questionnaire Administration, Interview, Testing and Observation Quality Control

6. 7. 8.

Data Processing Data Analysis and Interpretation Report Preparation and Information Dissemination

Order of Research Manuscript

Title page Approval Sheet page Abstract Acknowledgment page Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Global National Local Statement of the Problem/s Hypothesis (optional) Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature (books, magazines, etc.) Related Studies (actual researches) Theoretical Frameworks Conceptual Frameworks Definition of Terms (in alphabetical order)

Order of Research Manuscript

Chapter III METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Locale (may include maps) Research Respondents (or Subjects) Research Instrument/s Research Procedures (or Data Gathering Procedure) Statistical Treatment Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Questions in the Statement of the Problems will be answered and discussed one-by-one. Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Conclusions Recommendations References (no segregation, alphabetical) Appendices Curriculum Vitae

General Expectations for each Chapter in Research

Chapter I Introduction
Background of the Study. Determine the theme of your study and write something global, national, and local Last paragraph must contain statement why you are embarking on this research. Stepping board to the Statement of the Problem (a bridge) Statement of the Problem. What is you primary or main objective? Your secondary or sub-problems? Problem are stated in interrogative form but it can also be written in declarative form such as in objectives of the study (Just choose either one of the two formats) Hypothesis/Hypotheses are necessary if there are sub-problems on relationships or correlations. Guess where the relationship is going. Significance of the Study. Various sectors must be mentioned and they would benefit from the study Scope and Delimitation. What factors or dimensions were involved in the assessment? How many respondents? Where & when was the study undertaken?

General Expectations for each Chapter in Research

Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies
Introductory Paragraph Difference between literature and studies. Literatures are general topics found in books, newspapers, encyclopedia, etc. Cluster them by theme and place in sidehead. Studies are researches in the form of theses, dissertations and the like. Present them by theme or by chronology Synthesis. Summarize what you have found and what else do you have to search on. State what else can be supplemented by the current undertaking Theoretical Frameworks. Only theories which have bearing on the study should be included, around 3-4. Included the theorists name or the proponents Conceptual Framework. You may or may not agree with some of the tenets of the theorists cited. You can come up with your own paradigm. Show the independent, dependent and intervening variables, as you would want them to work on them. Explain your paradigm.

General Expectations for each Chapter in Research

Chapter III Methodology
Introductory Paragraph Research Design. Design and Methods are often confused with one another. Research design provides the logical framework upon which the research project is conducted and enables the researcher to gather evidence that will address the research questions. Research methods are actual techniques of data collection e.g. survey, interview, participantobservation, etc. Research Locale. It is the area where you conducted the research. Describe it from the vantage point of a known place. The use of a map to show where the actual research was done is optional Research Respondents. These are the number of people who have responded to the survey questionnaire or those who were interviewed. If you are conducting an experimental design, subject is the more appropriate term. In case of qualitative research design, the use of participant is suggested. Research Instrument/s. How many instrument/s did you use? Describe how it was constructed and validated. Include scoring system and how to interpret Research Procedures. You are cautioned not to include here what you have written about the instrument. Say something about getting permit, administering the instrument, retrieval of data and analysis Statistical Treatment. What statistical procedure/s did you use and where did you apply it/them? Avoid numbering. Use paragraph head. Formula and sample computations should be placed in the appendix.

General Expectations for each Chapter in Research

Chapter IV Results and Discussions
Introductory paragraph Present findings following the sequence of sub-problems in Chapter I. Each sub-problem can be paraphrased and placed in a sidehead. Then proceed to the presentation of results. There should be interpretation and discussion of data presented. Cite authority should you want to refute the findings. Corroborate findings with findings of other researchers on the same topics. Tables or figures should immediately follow the text that explains it/them.

General Expectations for each Chapter in Research

Chapter V Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Introductory paragraph What is the primary objective of the study? Write briefly on the following: research design including the methods used, locale, respondents and sampling, technique, instruments and statistical treatment Findings (strictly no discussion) Conclusion per sub-problem presented Recommendations

Theoretical Framework
It presents a theory that explains why a problem under study exists (Mercado, 1994), and explains the connection between certain factors and the problem. It provides the general framework which can guide data analysis. It identifies the variables to be measured.

Conceptual Framework
It is an elaboration of the theoretical framework in concrete terms. It is anchored on the theoretical framework. It specifies the variables of the study and the expected flow of relationship among them.

Conceptual Model of the Study Examples

Independent Variable Dependent Variables Specific Gravity Ethanol- in-Water Concentration Refractive Index

Intervening Variables Temperature Humidity

Conceptual Model of the Study Examples

Conceptual Model of the Study Examples

Characteristics of a Good Research Problem

1. 2. 3. 4. A research problem must be relevant. A research problem must be feasible. A research problem must be clear. A research problem must be ethical.

Concept Paper
Concept paper includes: 1. Proposed Title 2. Names of Proponents 3. Background of the Study / Rationale
What is the study all about? Brief discussion of the variables, parameters and extent of the study. Existing problem situation

4. 5. 6.

Significance of the Study Statement of the Problem or Objectives of the Study Proposed Timeline

Sequence of the Statement of the Problem

Profile of the subjects / respondents / moderator variable/s Measure of the independent variable/s Measure of the dependent variable/s Significant difference or relationships of variables

Proposed Titles for Research Projects

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Profile and Stream Flow of Wastewater in Agdao Public Market The Profile and Stream Flow of Wastewater in Bankerohan Public Market Solid Waste Characteristics and Management in Agdao Public Market Solid Waste Characteristics and Management of McDonald Stores in Davao City The Davao City Air Pollution Index and its Perceived Health Implications: Bases for LGU Policy Intervention The Causes and Effects of the June 2011 Flashflood in Pangi, Matina, Davao City

David, Felly. 2005. Understanding and Doing Research: A Handbook for Beginners. Iloilo City: Panorama Printing, Inc. Portillo, Reynaldo R. 2003. Research and Technical Writing. Trinitas Publishing. Alcantar, Rebecca D. and Espina, Felicidad P. 1995. Technical Writing for Filipino Students. Katha Publishing.

Thank you!