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Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers

Chapter 1 Objectives
Explain the importance of computer literacy Explain the purpose of a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and the World Wide Web Describe the categories of computers and their uses Identify the various types of computer users Understand how a user can be a Web publisher

Define the term computer


Identify the components of a computer Explain why a computer is a powerful tool Differentiate among the various categories of software

p. 1.2

The Digital Revolution


Where can you find computers?

p. 1.2 Fig. 1-1

Computers

are everywhere

The Digital Revolution


What is computer literacy?
If

you are computer literate, you have knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses

p. 1.4

What Is a Computer? What is a computer?

An electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory accepts data manipulates the data according to specified rules produces results stores the results for future use

p. 1.4

What is a Computer?
What are data and information?
Data
Collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols

Information
Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful

p. 1.4 Fig. 1-2

What is a Computer?
Who is a user?
Someone

that communicates with a computer Someone who uses the information it generates

p. 1.4

What is a Computer?
What are hardware and software?
Hardware
The electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer

Software
The series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks

p. 1.4

What is a Computer?
What is the information processing cycle?
Process Input
Any data or instructions you enter into a computer Manipulate the input (data) to produce output (information)

Output
Communication
The capability of communicating with other computers
p. 1.5

Storage
Area in a computer that can hold data and information for future use

Data that has been processed into information

The Components of a Computer


speaker printer speaker monitor keyboard modem scanner mouse PC camera

What are common computer hardware components?


system unit

p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3

microphone

digital camera

The Components of a Computer


What is an input device?
Any
microphone keyboard

hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer
PC camera

scanner

mouse

Click to view Web Link then click Input Devices p. 1.5 Fig. 1-3

digital camera

The Components of a Computer


What is an output device?
Any

hardware component that can convey information to a user


monitor speakers

printer

Click to view Web Link then click Output Devices p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3

The Components of a Computer


What is the system unit ?

p. 1.6 Fig. 1-3

Sometimes called a CD-RW chassis drive A box-like case made Zip from metal or plastic disk that protects the drive internal electronic hard components of the disk computer from damage drive Circuitry in the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard

CD-ROM or DVDROM drive floppy disk drive

The Components of a Computer


What are two main components on the motherboard?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Also called a processor

Electronic device that interprets


and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer

Memory
Click to view Web Link then click Processors p. 1.6

Temporary holding place for data


and instructions

The Components of a Computer


What is a chip?

An electronic device that contains many microscopic pathways that carry electrical currents Usually no bigger than one-half inch square Packaged so it can be attached to a motherboard
memory chip

processor chip packaging

p. 1.6 Fig. 1-4

The Components of a Computer


What are internal components and external devices?

Internal Component
Resides inside the system unit

External Device
Also called a peripheral Attaches to the system unit

p. 1.6

The Components of a Computer


What is storage?
Holds

data, instructions, and information for future use Storage Device Storage Medium

Records and
retrieves items to and from a storage medium

Physical material
on which a computer keeps the data, instructions and information

Devices often
function as source of input because they transfer items from storage into memory

Click to view Web Link then click Storage Devices p. 1.7

The Components of a Computer


What are common storage devices or drives?
CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive

CD-RW drive hard disk drive

ZIP drive
floppy disk drive

p. 1.7 Fig. 1-3

The Components of a Computer


What is a floppy disk?

A thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in a plastic shell Insert and remove a floppy disk into and from a floppy disk drive A Zip disk is a higher capacity disk

p. 1.7 Fig. 1-5

The Components of a Computer


What is a hard disk?

p. 1.7 Fig. 1-6 & 7

Consists of several circular platters that store items electronically Disks are enclosed in an airtight, sealed case, which often is housed inside the system unit Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk Some hard disks are removable removable hard disk

self-contained hard disk

The Components of a Computer


What is a compact disc?

A flat, round portable medium that stores data using microscopic pits, which are created by a laser light CD-ROM CD-RW
rewriteable CD

DVD-ROM
tremendous storage capacities
p. 1.8 Fig. 1-8

The Components of a Computer


What is miniature storage media?
Used

in devices such as digital cameras One popular type is called a card

miniature storage media

p. 1.8 Fig. 1-9

The Components of a Computer


What is a communications device?

Enables computer users to communicate and to exchange items such as data, instructions, and information with another computer Allows you to establish a connection between two computers and transmit items over transmission media, such as cables, telephone lines, or satellites One type is a modem

Click to view Web Link then click Communications Devices p. 1.8 Fig. 1-3

modem

Why Is a Computer So Powerful?


What characteristics make a computer powerful?
Storage
Enormous amounts of data can be stored and made available for processing anytime it is needed

Speed Reliability
Dependable because components have a low failure rate so they produce consistent results

Billions of operations can be carried out in a single second

Accuracy
If data is entered correctly and program works properly, the results are error-free garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) accuracy of output p. 1.8 depends on accuracy of input

Communications
Two connected computers can share stored data, instructions, and information

Why Is a Computer So Powerful?


What is a network?
Two

or more computers connected together via communications media and devices The most widely known network is the Internet
p. 1.10 Fig. 1-10

Technology Trailblazer
Bill Gates

Click to view Web Link then click Bill Gates p. 1.9

Microsofts chairman and chief software architect Co-founded Microsoft in 1975 Regarded as the most powerful person in the computer industry Consistently anticipates technological developments and customer needs

Computer Software
What is a computer program?
A

series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do


Uses data in memory in calculations Displays information on monitor Compares values stored in memory

Allows you to input data and stores it in memory

Click to view Web Link then click Computer Programs p. 1.10

Directs computer to perform alternative operations

Prints a report

Stores information on disk

Computer Software
What is software installation?

Some programs can be loaded directly from purchased media, others must be installed Install means part or all of the instructions are copied from the purchased media onto the computer's hard disk before the program can be used

p. 1.11 Fig. 1-11

Computer Software
What happens when you run a program from a CD-ROM? Step 1
Step 1: Insert the CD-ROM that contains Step 2: If the program into the necessary, install CD-ROM drive. the program on Step 3: The the hard disk. program Then instruct the executes and the computer to run screen displays the program. graphics that Instructions allow you to transfer from the create a greeting CD-ROM or hard card. disk to memory.
p. 1.11 Fig. 1-12

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Computer Software
What is system software?
Programs

that control the operations of the computer and its devices

Operating System (OS)


Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware devices

Utility program
Type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs

p. 1.12

Computer Software
What is the user interface?
Determines

how you interact with software Used to control how you enter data and instructions Used to control how information displays on the screen
p. 1.12

Computer Software
What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
Allows

you to interact with the software using visual images such as icons
icon is a small image that represents a program, an instruction, or some other object
icons

An

icons

p. 1.12 Fig. 1-13

Computer Software
What is application software?
Programs

that perform specific tasks for users


Suite Four popular software applications bundled together as a single unit Presentation graphics software Spreadsheet software Database software

Word processing software

Click to view Web Link then click Application Software p. 1.13

Computer Software
What is packaged software?
Copyrighted

retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of users Purchase from stores or companies on the Internet
p. 1.13 Fig. 1-14

Computer Software
What is custom software?
Written

by a programmer Tailor-made program developed at a users request to perform specific functions


p . 1.14

Computer Software
What are freeware, public-domain software, and shareware? Shareware
Copyrighted software
that is distributed free for a trial period

Send a payment to Freeware Software provided at


no cost to a user by an individual or company

developer on honor system

Public-Domain Software

Freeware donated
for public use

p. 1.4

Copyrighted Cannot resell it on


your own

No copyright
restrictions

Computer Software
What is an application service provider (ASP)?
Third-party company that manages and distributes software and services on the Internet You can run the programs from the Internet
p. 1.14

Both free and paid ASPs

Computer Software
Who designs and writes software?

Computer programmer (or programmer) Writes software programs Systems Analyst Designs a program, working with both the user and the programmer to determine the desired output of the program

p. 1.14

Computer Software
How are programs written?
Programmers

use a programming language to write computer programs

p. 1.14 Fig. 1-15

Networks and the Internet


What is a network?
Collection

of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media When your computer connects to a network you are online
Communications Device Communications Media

Modem

Cables

p. 1.16

Telephone lines Cellular radio Satellites

Networks and the Internet


What are the reasons to network?
Hardware devices

To share resources

To save time and money

Software programs Data


p. 1.16

Information

Networks and the Internet


What is a local area network (LAN)?
A

network that connects computers in a limited geographic area such as a school computer laboratory, office or group of buildings

p. 1.16 Fig. 1-16

Networks and the Internet


What is a wide area network (WAN)?
A

network that covers a large geographical area, such as one that connects offices across the country

p. 1.16 Fig. 1-17

Networks and the Internet


What is the Internet?

A worldwide collection of networks that links together millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

Click to view Web Link then click Internet p. 1.17

Networks and the Internet


Why do users access the Internet?

E-mail Information E-mail Shopping Meeting people Entertainment


Shopping

Meeting people Information

Entertainment

p. 1.17 Fig. 1-18

Networks and the Internet


How do users connect to the Internet?
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Company that supplies connections to the Internet, usually for a monthly fee Online Service Provider (OSP)

Provides access to the Internet, as well as a variety of other specialized content and services

p. 1.18

Networks and the Internet


What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
Billions

of documents, called Web pages, that are linked together on computers throughout the world
Web browser Web page
Contains text, graphics, sound, or video and has connections to other Web pages Program used to access and view Web pages

Web site
Collection of related Web pages

p. 1.18

Networks and the Internet


How do you connect to the Internet and display a Web page?
Step 1 : Use your computer Step 2 : A Web to make a local browser such telephone call Step 3 : Enter as Internet to an online of the address Explorer Step 4 : The service site the Web a Web displays Web browser you wishyour page on to locates the visit site for screen Web the entered address and displays a Web page on your screen
p. 1.18 Fig. 1-19

Step 1

Step 2

Step 4

Step 3

Categories of Computers
What are the categories of computers?

p. 1.19 Fig. 1-20

Personal Computers
What is a personal computer?
A

computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
Contains at least

One Input
device

Microprocessor The single chip that performs all the processing functions on a personal computer

Two major categories

One output
device

Desktop
Notebook

One storage
device
p. 1.19

Memory A processor

Personal Computers
What are the two most popular series of personal computers?

The Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS)
p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22 p. 1.19 Fig. 1-21 & 22

The PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system

Company on the Cutting Edge


Gateway

One of the worlds leading technology manufacturers Manufactures built-toorder PCs Consumers from around the world order more than 11,000 custom systems daily

Click to view Web Link then click Gateway p . 1.21

Personal Computers
What is a desktop computer?
Designed

so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table

Click to view Web Link then click Personal Computers p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23

Personal Computers
What are some desktop computer variations?

Tower model Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically

p. 1.20 Fig. 1-23

Personal Computers
What are some desktop computer variations?
All-in-one

computer Less expensive desktop that combines he monitor and system unit into a single device

p. 1.21 Fig. 1-24

Personal Computers
What are some desktop computer variations?
Workstation

More expensive and powerful


desktop designed for work that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities Stand-alone Can perform the information processing cycle operations without being connected to a p. 1.21 network

Personal Computers
What are some desktop computer variations?

p. 1.22 Fig. 1-25

Server Powerful desktop that manages the resources on a network Clients or workstations Other computers on network that access the contents of the storage area on the servers

Personal Computers
What is a notebook computer?

Also called a laptop Portable, personal computer small enough to fit on your lap Generally more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities

Click to view video p. 1.22 Fig. 1-26

Handheld Computers
What is a handheld computer?

Also called a palmtop computer Small computer that fits in your hand

Click to view Web Link then click Handheld Computers p. 1.23 Fig. 1-27

Handheld Computers
How do you input data with a handheld computer?

Some have small keyboards

p. 1.23

Others use a stylus A stylus looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure, instead of ink to write Some support voice input

Handheld Computers
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?

One of the most popular handheld computers in use today Provides personal organizer functions Calendar Appointment book Address book Calculator Notepad

p. 1.23 Fig. 1-28

Handheld Computers
What are Web-enabled handheld computers?

Allow you to access the Internet wirelessly


Web-enabled cellular telephone Web-enabled two-way pager Web-enabled handheld computer

p. 1.24 Fig. 1-29

Internet Appliances
What is an Internet appliance or information appliance?
Computer

with

limited functionality whose main purpose is to connect to the Internet from home
p. 1.24 Fig. 1-30

Internet Appliances
What is WebTV?

An Internet appliance in the form of a set-top box Sits on top of or next to a television set and allows you to access the Internet on the TV

p. 1.25 Fig. 1-31

Mid-Range Servers
What is a mid-range server?

More powerful and larger than a workstation computer Supports up to 4,000 users Often connected via a personal computer or terminal Once known as a minicomputer
p. 1.25 Fig. 1-32

Mid-Range Servers
What is a terminal?
Sometimes called dumb terminals No processing
power Cannot stand alone Must be connected to a server to operate

Device with a monitor and keyboard used to access a server

p. 1.25

Mainframes
What is a mainframe?

Large, expensive, very powerful computer Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously Stores tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information

p. 1.26 Fig. 1-33

Company on the Cutting Edge

International Business Machines (IBM) Incorporated in 1911 The first family of computers with interchangeable software and peripherals Worlds largest information technology company

Click to view Web Link then click IBM p. 1.26

Supercomputers
What is a supercomputer?
Fastest,
Able

most powerful computer

to process more than 12 trillion instructions per second

p. 1.26 Fig. 1-34

Elements of an Information System


What is an information system?

1. Hardware 1. Hardware

Click to view Web Link then click Women in Technology

For an information system to provide accurate, timely, and useful information, each element must be present and all of the elements must work together

2. Software 2. Software

3. Data 3. Data 5. Procedures

Click to view Web Link then click Minorities in Technology p. 1.27 Fig. 1-35

4b. People (users) 4a. People (IT personnel) 4b. People (users) 4a. People (IT personnel)

Examples of Computer Usage What are five categories of computer users?


Home
Mobile
Large Business

Small Office/Home Office

Power

p. 1.28 Fig. 1-36

Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a home user?

research Web access

finance and business management entertainment

p. 1.29 Fig. 1-37

Examples of Computer Usage How do computer companies accommodate children?


Many

manufacturers design special hardware for children

p. 1.30 Fig. 1-38

Examples of Computer Usage What is the digital divide?


Idea that you can separate people of the world into two distinct groups Those who have access to technology with the ability to use it Those who do not have access to technology or are without the ability Click to view video to use it p. 1.30

Technology Trailblazer
Shawn Fanning

As a 19-year-old freshman computer science major, he developed the Napster software and company Pioneering filesharing concept has implications for all copyrighted digital information

Click to view Web Link then click Shawn Fanning p. 1.30

Examples of Computer Usage What hardware and software is Web access available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?

p. 1.31 Fig. 1-39

Desktop usage Local Area Network (Lan) Productivity software Specialty software Web usage
spreadsheet

Examples of Computer Usage What new computer trends concern a small office/home office (SOHO) user?

p. 1.31

E-mail Communicate with others E-commerce Conduct financial business on the Web Web cam Allows a SOHO user to show the world a live view of some aspect of their business

Examples of Computer Usage What is a mobile user?


Travel to and from a main office to conduct business Hardware Notebook computers Handheld computers Web-enabled cellular telephones Software Productivity p. 1.32 Presentation Fig. 1-40

Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user?

p. 1.33 Fig. 1-41

Network Local area network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Large business Web site Sales management Accounting Desktop publishing Information systems department Productivity software Scheduling Web access

Examples of Computer Usage What is a kiosk?


A

freestanding computer Usually has multimedia capability and a touch screen Used by a large business to provide information to the public
Click to view video p. 1.34 Fig. 1-43

Examples of Computer Usage What is telecommuting?

A work arrangement in which employees work away from a companys standard workplace Often communicate with the office using some communications technology

p. 1.34 Fig. 1-44

Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user?


Requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer Types of power users Engineers Architects Desktop publishers Graphic artists Typically work with multimedia Combines text, graphics, sound, video, an other p. 1.35 media elements into Fig. 1-45 one application

Computer User as a Web Publisher


What is Web publishing?
Making A

a Web page available on the Internet

few reasons to publish Web pages

Provide family


p. 1.36 Fig. 1-46

information Provide information about business Provide a resume online Provide online courses called distance-learning courses

Computer User as a Web Publisher


What are other ways to use the Web?

p. 1.37 Fig. 1-47

Photo communities Allow you to create an online photo album Electronic storefronts Allow a small business to advertise and take orders directly at a Web site Communicate with others E-mail Chat rooms Instant messaging

Summary of Introduction to Computers


The

digital revolution What is a computer? The components of a computer Why is a computer so powerful? Computer software Networks and the Internet Categories of computers Personal computers

Summary of Introduction to Computers (cont.)


Handheld

computers Internet appliances Mid-range servers Mainframes Supercomputers Elements of an information system Examples of computer usage Computer user as a Web publisher

Chapter 1 Complete