You are on page 1of 98

Everywhere our knowledge is incomplete and problems are waiting to be solved.

We address the void in our knowledge, and those unresolved problems, By asking relevant questions and seeking answers to them. The role of research is to provide a method for obtaining those answers By inquiringly studying the facts, within the parameters Of the scientific method.

A perfect CIRCLE may look like an imperfect one!!!!!!

Seeing may not be believing!!!!


Boeing Company has been a premier manufacturer of commercial jetliners for more than 40 years and provides products and services to customers in 145 countries. Objective:

To continuously monitor the dynamic market place To Understand the needs and priorities of airlines and their customers (people who fly)

To achieve this purpose BCA employs marketing research on a regular basis

Two stage methodology

First stage: first screened and qualified by telephone or via personal interviews Second Stage: Online survey at home or work or at a central interviewing location 913 interviews conducted in UK, Tokyo and Hong Kong with international travelers (above 18 years) who had taken at least one recent eight hour or longer flight.

Findings: o More than 60% prefer single deck, 250 passenger to a double deck ,550 passenger airplane for nonstop flights o 7 out of 10 prefer a non-stop trip on single deck o Passengers in all classes believe smaller airplanes will provide better experience with check-in, boarding, baggage claim, customs or immigrations

Action: BCA developed a new version of Boeing 737 which caters to 100-215 seat market Outcome: The 737 family has won orders for more than 5200 airplanes.


Business Research may be defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions. Systematic-ness and Objectivity are its distinguishing features of Business Research, which is important tool for managers and decision-makers in corporate and non-corporate organizations

Business research methods are used in situations of uncertainty, that is, when decision-makers face two or more courses of action and seek to select the best possible alternative under the circumstances. Business Research is hence aimed at improving the quality of decision-making which, in turn, benefits the organization and helps ensure its continuity and efficiency.

Businesses and Corporations

Public-Sector Agencies Consulting Firms

Research Institutes
Non-Governmental Organizations Non-Profit Organizations Independent Researchers and Consultants

Interviews Observation Experiments Archival

and Historical Data Qualitative Analysis Quantitative Analysis

A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first wants to ascertain if there is a potential consumer demand for this product in markets x, y and z
A multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in another country after determining its technical and economic feasibility

A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level of its employees, the causes for any possible discontent, and propose a scheme for enhancing this level
A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and commissions a study to determine the past trends and forecast future returns in a portfolio of commodities The CEO of a firm wants to undertake a SWOT-Analysis as part of his plan to redefine his organizations priorities

Business Research

Problem Identification Research

Market Potential Research Market Share Research Sales Analysis Research Business Trends Research

Problem-Solving Research

Segmentation Research Product Research Pricing Research Promotion Research

Types of Research



Inquiry Mode

Pure Research

Applied Descriptive Exploratory Co relational Explanatory Quantitative Quantitative Research Research Research Research Research Research Research


Definition Development of an Approach to the problem Research Design formulation Fieldwork or Data collection Data Preparation and Analysis Report Preparation and Presentation

Importance of literature review in research

Bring clarity and focus to your research problem Improve your methodology Broaden your knowledge base in your research area Contextualize your findings

Procedure for reviewing the literature

Search existing literature in your area of study Review the literature selected Develop a theoretical framework Develop a conceptual frame work

A research problem can be defined as a gap or uncertainty in the decision makers existing body of knowledge which inhibits efficient decision making. The gap could be academic & theoretical (basic) or real time and action oriented (applied).

Management Decision Problem

Discussions with subject experts

Review of existing literature

Organization Analysis

Qualitative analysis

Management Research Problem / Question

Research framework / Analytical model

Statement of Research Objectives

Formulation of Research Hypothesis



1. What should be done to increase the 1. What is the awareness and purchase customer base of organic products in the intention of health conscious consumers for domestic market? organic products? 2. What is the impact of shift duties on work exhaustion and turnover intentions of the BPO employees?

2. How to reduce turnover rates in the BPO sector?

3. How does Widex/ industry leader manage its 3. How to improve the delivery process of supply chain in India/Asia? Widex hearing aids in India? 4. What is the satisfaction level of the company 4. Should the company continue with its with the existing vendor? Are there any gaps? existing security services vendor or look at an Can they be effectively handled by the vendor? alternative? 5. What is the current investment in Real Estate 5. Can the Housing and real estate growth be and Housing? Can the demand in the sector be accelerated? forecasted for the next six months? 6a. what has been the Leadership initiatives and performance record of ABC viz. XYZ? 6b. Can a leading aggressive private sector bank accept a woman as its leader?

6. Whom should ICICI choose as its next Managing director- Mr ABC or Mrs. XYZ?

Management decision problem: the issue/decision that needs to be resolved through research
Discussion with experts: to get the right perspective on the issue, discussion/dialogue is held with subject/industry expert. Review of literature: the most valuable source of framing the research question is to review the past work done on related topic(s). Qualitative surveys: primary exploratory loosely structured surveys to attain the environmental context.


research problem: the four steps might lead to multiple directions/research problems the researcher can take. The researcher has to identify THE alternative he/she will undertake

model building (optional)

of research objectives

Unit of analysis
Independent variable

Dependent variable
Extraneous independent variable Intervening variables Moderating variables

A proposition, condition, or principle which is assumed, perhaps without belief, in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined. A proposition that is stated in a testable form ands that predicts a particular relationship between two (or more) variables. In other words , if we think that a relationship exits, we first stat it as a hypothesis and then test the hypothesis in the filed(Bailey,1978)

A hypotheses is any assumption/presupposition that the researcher makes about the probable direction of the results that might be obtained on the completion of the research process Descriptive hypotheses: This is simply a statement about the magnitude, trend, or behaviour of a population under study. Relational hypotheses: These are the typical kind of hypotheses which state the expected relationship between two variables.

Formulate your Assumption

Collect The required data

Analyze Data To draw conclusions

hypothesis should be simple, specific and conceptually clear. A hypothesis should be capable of verification. A hypothesis should be related to the existing body of knowledge. A hypothesis should be operationalisable

Types Of Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis

Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Hypothesis of No difference Hypothesis (null hypothesis) Of difference

Hypothesis Of pointprevalence

Hypothesis Of association


I Error: Rejection of a null hypothesis when it is true. Type II Error: Acceptance of a null hypothesis when it is false.

Concepts : Concepts are mental images or perceptions and therefore their meanings vary markedly from individual to individual Constructs: Unobservable characteristics or constructs such as constructs such as aptitude, image, personality and patriotism. Variables: Variables are measurable.

Subjective impression No uniformity as to its understanding among different people As such can not be measured Example: Rich High,academic achievement

Measurable though the degree of precision varies from scale to scale and from variable to variable Example: Income per year Percentage of Marks

Types of variables

Causal model

Study design

Unit of measurement

ndependent Intervening Extraneous Dependent Variable Variable Variable Variable

Active Variable

Attribute Variable

Quantitative Qualitative Continuous Categorical Variable Variable Variables Variables




A research design is a plan , structure and strategy of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions or program of research. It includes an outline of what the investigator will do from writing the hypotheses and their operational implication as to the final analysis of data (Kerlinger 1986). A traditional research design is a blue print or detailed plan for how a reserch study is to be completed- operationalizing variables so they can be measured, selecting a sample of interest to study, collecting data to be used as a basis for testing hypotheses, and analyzing the results (Thyer 1993).

The formulated design must ensure three basic tenets: Convert the research question and the stated assumptions/hypotheses into operational variables that can be measured. Specify the process that would be followed to complete above task, as efficiently and economically as possible. Specify the control mechanism(s) that would be used to ensure that effect of other variables that could impact the outcome of the study have been controlled.


and development of procedures and logistical arrangements required to undertake a study. Research design emphasizes the importance of quality in these procedures to ensure their validity, objectivity and accuracy. According to Kerlinger(1986) these functions are called control of variance.

Research Design Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research design Causal Research

Descriptive Research

Longitudinal Design

Cross-Sectional Design Single Cross-Sectional Design Multiple Cross- Sectional Design

To provide insights and understanding. Information needed is defined only loosely. Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and non representative . Analysis of primary data is qualitative. Tentative Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research.

To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships Information needed is clearly defined. Research process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative. Data analysis is quantitative.
Conclusive Finding used as input into decision making.


Discover ideas and insights. Characteristics: Flexible, versatile, often the front end of total research design. Methods: Expert surveys, Pilot surveys, Secondary data , Qualitative research.


Describe market characteristics or

functions. Characteristics: Marked by the prior formulation specific hypothesis. Preplanned and structured design. Methods: Secondary data ,Surveys , Panels , Observational and other data.


Determine cause and effect relationships. Characteristics: Manipulation of one or more independent variables. Control of other mediating variables. Methods: Experiments.

Total Error Random Sampling Error Nonsampling Error Nonresponse Error

Response Error

Researcher Errors
Interviewer Errors Respondent Errors

Research Data

Secondary Data Qualitative Data

Primary Data

Quantitative Data

Observational and other data



Experimental data


versus Secondary data Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary data Criteria for evaluating secondary data Classification of Secondary data

Internal Ready to use Require further Processing External Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services

Qualitative Research Direct (Nondisguised) Depth Interviews Projective techniques Indirect (Disgusied)

Focus Groups


Content Analysis

Association Techniques

Completion Techniques

Construction Techniques

Expressive Techniques

Characteristics: Group size 8 to 12 Group Composition :Homogeneous: respondents prescreened Physical setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration 1 to 3 hours Recording Use of audio cassettes and video tapes


with firmness Permissiveness Involvement Incomplete understanding Encouragement Flexibility Sensitivity

Synergism Snowballing Stimulation Security Spontaneity Serendipity Specialization Scientific scrutiny Structure Speed


Moderation Messy



a problem more precisely. Generating alternative course of action. Developing an approach to a problem. Obtaining information helpful in structuring consumer questionnaires. Generating hypotheses that can be tested quantitatively. Interpreting previously obtained quantitative results.


Direct 30

min 1 hour


Line of questioning proceed from product characteristics to user characteristics. Hidden issue questioning: It attempts to locate personal sore spots related to deeply felt personal concerns. Symbolic Analysis: In this technique symbolic meaning of objects is analyzed by comparing them with their opposites

Survey Method: A structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specify information from respondents.

Survey Method

Telephone Interviewing

Personal Interviewing

Mail Interviewing

Electronic Interviewing

raditional Computer Mall Computer In- Home Assisted Intercept Assisted


Mail Panel




recording of behavioral patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest. Structured versus unstructured observation Disguised versus undisguised observation Natural versus contrived observation

Observation Methods

Personal Observation

Mechanical Observation


Content Analysis

Trace Analysis

1. 2. 3.

Concept of Causality Conditions for causality Concomitant variation Time order of occurrence of variables Absence of other possible causal factors



Units Dependent Variables Extraneous Variables Experiment Experimental Design


Validity: It measures whether the manipulation of the independent variables or treatments, actually caused the effects on the dependent variable(s). External Validity: A determination of whether the cause-effect relationships found in the experiment can be gerneralized.

Maturation Testing

Effects Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bais Mortality

Matching Statistical

Control Design Control

Experimental Design


True Experimental

Quasi Experimental


The frame into which we wish to make everything fit is one of our own construction; but we do not construct it at random, we construct it by measurement so to speak; and that is why we can fit the facts into it without altering their essential qualities (Poincare, 1952).

Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale

The Nominal Scale: Enables the classification The Ordinal Scale: Enables classification and ranking The Interval Scale: It has all the characteristics of ordinal PLUS it has a unit of measurement with an arbitrary starting and terminating point. The Ratio scale: It has all the properties of an interval scale PLUS it has a fixed starting point.

Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Non comparative Scales

Rank Order

Constant Sum
Q-Sort and Other Procedures

Paired Comparisons

Continuous Rating Scales

Itemized Rating Scales

Likert Scale

Semantic Differential Scale Stapel Scale

This is the simplest and most often used method of primary data collection There is a pre-determined set of questions in a sequential format Is designed to suit the respondents understanding and language command Can be conducted to collect useful data from a large population in a short duration of time


spelt out research objectives need to be converted into specific questions must be designed to engage the respondent and encourage meaningful response questions should be designed in simple language and be self-explanatory



Formalized Unconcealed Most research studies use Standardized Questionnaires like these.

Non Formalized The response categories have more flexibility


Used for assessing psychographic and Questionnaires using subjective constructs projective techniques or sociometric analysis

Formalized & unconcealed questionnaire: self-explanatory with most response categories predefined

Out of the following options, where do you invest (tick all that apply) Precious metals----------------, real estate------------, stocks---------, Government instruments---------, mutual funds------any other------Who carries out your investments? Myself-----------, agent---------, relative-----------, friend------------, any other----------

What is your source of information for these decisions? Newspaper------------, investment magazines-----------, company records etc.----------, Trading portals------------, agent------------

Formalized & concealed questionnaire: most response categories are predefined, but latent cause of behaviour are derived from indirect questions
Please indicate level of your agreement for the following statements.

SA - Strongly Agree; A-Agree; N-Neutral; SD- Strongly Disagree; D-Disagree

SA 1 2 3 4 5 The individual of the present era is better informed about everything than the individual before. I believe that one must live for the day and worry about tomorrow later. An individual must at all times keep abreast of what is happening in the world around him/her. Books are best friends anyone can have. I generally read and then decide what to buy. A N D SD

Non-formalized & concealed questionnaire: undisguised and most response categories are not predefined

Why do you think Maggi noodles are liked by young children? --------------------------------------------------------------------------How do you generally decide on where you are going to invest your money?-------------------------------------------------------------

Give three reasons why you believe that the 2010 Commonwealth Games in India are going to help the country? -------------------------------------------------------------------------

Non-formalized & concealed questionnaire: disguised and most response categories are not predefined,e.g. Given below are two grocery lists personify the user


questionnaire: respondents fills in the questionnaire him/her self


the investigator/researcher reads out the questions and records the respondents answers.







Convert the Research Objectives into the Information Needed Method of Administering the Questionnaire Content of the Questions Motivating the Respondent to Answer Determining Type of Questions Question Design Criteria

Determine the Questionnaire Structure Physical presentation of the Questionnaire

Pilot Testing the Questionnaire Administering the Questionnaire

Now I am going to give you a set of cards. Each card will have the name of one television serial (Hand over the cards to the respondent in a random order). I want you to examine them carefully (give her some time to read all the names). I would request you to hand over the card which has the name of the serial you like to watch the most. (Record the serial and keep this card with you). Now of the remaining nine serials name your most favorite serial (continue the same process till the person is left with the last card)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

T.V. SERIAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

RANK ORDER ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Please listen very carefully; I am going to slowly read the name of ten popular T.V. serials. I want to know how much you prefer watching them. You need to use a 1 to 10 scale, where 1 means I do not like watching it and 10 means I really like watching it. For those in between you may choose any number between 1 and 10. However, please remember that the higher the number the more you like watching it. Now, I am going to name the serials one by one. In case the name is not clear I will repeat the list again. So, the serials name is-------------------. Please use a number between 1 and 10 as I had told you. O.k. thank you, the next name is---------------------. And so on till all the 10 names have been read out and evaluated. SERIAL 1. Balika Badhu 2. Sathiya 3. Sasural Genda Phool 4. Bidai 5. Pathshala 6. Bandini 7. Laptaganj 8. Sajan Ghar jaaana Hai 9. Tere liye 10. Uttaran

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

In the next question you will find the names of ten popular Hindi serials that are being aired on television these days. You are requested to rank them in order of your preference to watch these programmes. Start by identifying the serial which is your most favorite, to this you may give a rank of 1. Then from the rest of the nine, pick the second most preferred serials and give it a rank number of 2.Please carry out this process till you have ranked all 10. The one you prefer the least should have a score of 10. You are also requested not to give two serials the same rank. The basis on which you decide to rank the serials is entirely dependent upon you. Once again you are asked to rank all the 10 serials. SERIAL Balika Badhu Sathiya Sasural Genda Phool Bidai Pathshala Bandini Laptaganj Sajan Ghar Jaaana Hai Tere Liye Uttaran RANK ORDER ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Essential to ask the question To gauge consumers shopping behaviour

Please indicate the level of your agreement for the following statements. SA - Strongly Agree; A-Agree; N-Neutral; SD- Strongly Disagree; D-Disagree SA A Compared to the past (5-10 years) 1 The individual customer today shops more 2 The consumer is well informed about market offerings 3 The consumer knows what he/she wants to buy before he enters the store 4 The consumer today has more money to spend 5 There are more shopping options available to the consumer today


Several questions or single question Why do you like the serial--------------(the one you ranked/prefer watching most)? (Incorrect) "What do you like about-------------?" Who all in your household watches the serial? and "How did you first happen to hear about the serial?" (Correct)

Assisting the respondent to provide the answer Does he have the answer?
1. How do you evaluate the negotiation skills module with the Communication and presentation skill module? (Incorrect)

1. Have you been through the following training modules? Negotiation skills module Communication & presentation skills


In case the answer to both is yes, please answer the following question else move to the next question.
How do you evaluate the negotiation skills module with the Communication and presentation skill module? (Correct)

Assisting the respondent to provide the answer Does he remember?

How much did you spend on eating out last month? (Incorrect)

1. When you go out to eat, on an average your bill amount is:

________ Less than Rs100 ________ Rs 101-250 ________ Rs 251-500 ________ more than Rs 500 2. How often do you eat out in a week? ________ 1-2 times. ________ 3-4 times ________ 5-6 times ________ every day


Assisting the respondent to provide the answer Can he articulate? Describe the river rafting experience.... (incorrect)
Describe the river rafting experience
1 2 3 4 5 Unexciting Bad Boring Cheap Safe exciting good interesting expensive dangerous


Assisting the respondent to answer The perspective is not clear How many credit cards do you own? or When did you last go on a holiday? or How many movies do you watch in a fortnight? (incorrect)

A spillover of a healthy quality of working life is also reflected in a persons way of living. Thus, we would like to know how you live. (correct)

Assisting the respondent to answer Sensitive information/topic

Have you ever used fake receipts to claim your medical allowance? (Incorrect) Have you ever spit tobacco on the road (to tobacco consumers)? (Incorrect)

Do you associate with people who use fake receipts to claim their medical allowance? (Correct) Do you think tobacco consumers spit tobacco on the road? (Correct)

Question Content

Open ended

Closed - ended


Multiple Responses


Open ended questions: What is your age?

How would you evaluate the work done by the present government? How much orange juice does this bottle contain? What is your reaction to this new custard powder? Why do you smoke Gold Flake cigarettes? Which is your favorite TV serial?

What training programme have you last attended?

With whom in your work group do you interact with after office hours?

Closed ended questions


Dichotomous questions
Are you diabetic? Have you read the new book by Dan Brown? Yes/no What kind of petrol do you use in your car? Normal/Premium What kind of cola do you drink? Normal/diet Your working hours in the organization are flexible fixed/ Yes / No

Closed ended questions 2. Multiple choice questions

How -

much do you spend on grocery products (average in one month)? Less than Rs. 2500/Between Rs 2500-5000/More than Rs 5000/-

You do not currently sell organic food products because (Could be 1) - You do not know about organic food products. - You are not interested. - You are interested but you do not know how to procure it. - It is not profitable. -The customer demand is too low - any other--------------------

Clearly Use

specify the issue

simple terminology ambiguity in questioning leading questions loaded questions

Avoid Avoid Avoid


implicit choices and assumptions

double-barrelled questions




questions information



Sampling Techniques



Simple Random Sampling

Systematic sampling

Cluster Sampling

Stratified Sampling

One- stage Sampling

Two- Stage Sampling

Multi-Stage Sampling

Proportionate Disproportionate

Non-Probability Sampling

Convenience Sampling

Judgmental Sampling

Quota Sampling

Snowball Sampling

Parameter: It is the true value that would be obtained if a census rather than a sample were undertaken. Statistic: It is a summery description of a characteristic or measure of a sample. Finite population correction :It is a correction for overestimation of the variance of a population parameter. Precision Level: The desired size of the estimating interval. This is the maximum permissible difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter. Confidence Interval: The confidence interval is the range into which the true parameter will fall. Confidence level: The confidence level is the probability that a confidence interval will include the population parameter.

The distribution of the values of sample statistic computed for each possible sample that could be drawn from the target population under a specific sampling plan. Statistical Inference: The process of generalizing the sample results of the population results. Standard Error: The standard distribution of the sampling distribution of the mean or proportion.