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# How to solve a problem ?

## The ISM approach

-Gaurav Dahake 08IM3014 -Ankit Banthia 08IM3013 Guide: Dr. Akhilesh Kumar

Problems
Problem can be

Solution Techniques
Solution is any method for solving a problem. Solution Methods: Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system Analogy: using a solution that solves an analogous problem Brainstorming: Divide and conquer: breaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, solvable problems Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove the assumption

Solution Techniques
Lateral thinking: approaching solutions indirectly and creatively Morphological analysis: assessing the output and interactions of an entire system Proof: try to prove that the problem cannot be solved. Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems Root cause analysis: eliminating the cause of the problem

ISM
Interpretive structural modeling Proposed by J. Warfield in 1973 Effective methodology for dealing with complex issues Helps to develop complex relations among elements of a system Used worldwide including NASA

## Steps involved in ISM

1
Identify problem to be studied Identify the factors/issues

## Develop the ISM model

Example
D.K. Banwet and Ravi Shankar (2006), Supply Chain Risk Mitigation: Modeling the enablers , BPJM, Vol. 12 No. 4, p. 535-552 Aim: To find out the most important enabler and the relation between various enablers so as to effectively mitigate risk in supply chain

1

5

## Enablers of Supply Chain Management

9

10

11

Notation
V: if enabler i facilitates enabler j A: if enabler j facilitates enabler i O: if both enabler facilitates each other X: if enabler i and j are unrelated

## Structural Self-Interaction Matrix

Reachability Matrix

Transitivity Matrix

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 2-5

## ISM based model

1

Example 2
Mr. Rinshul Sable wants to open an online food delivery business. Here a customer would be able to place his order online from any of the restaurants listed and get food delivered at his doorstep.

Issues in Start-up
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Need fund to start the business Register the company Develop a website of the company Setup an office Manager and delivery men to manage the business 6. Approach restaurants in the city

Issues in Start-up
7. Advertise the company to customers in the city 8. Provide on time delivery 9. Provide a 12x7 helpline 10. Handle the logistics issues 11. Collect money from the customers 12. Increase customer turnup

Notation
A: if issue is i prerequisite for issue j B: if issue is j prerequisite for issue i C: if both are prerequisite for each other D: if issue i and j are unrelated

SSIM
Relationship matrix
S no. ISSUES
1 2 A 3 A A 4 A D D 5 A D D 6 A A C 7 A A A 8 A D D 9 A D D 10 A D D 11 12 D D A A D A

1 Need fund to start the business 2 Register the company Develop a website of the 3 company

## 4 Setup an office Manager and delivery men to 5 manage the business

6 Approach restaurants in the city Advertise the company to 7 customers in the city 8 Provide on time delivery 9 Provide a 12x7 helpline 10 Handle the logistics issues Collect money from the 11 customers 12 Increase customer turnup

D
A

D
D A

A
A D D

A
A D B B

A
A D D B A

D
A D D A D A

D
D D A A A D D

Reachability Matrix
S no. ISSUES 1 Need fund to start the business 2 Register the company 3 Develop a website of the company 4 Setup an office Manager and delivery men to 5 manage the business 6 Approach restaurants in the city Advertise the company to 7 customers in the city 8 Provide on time delivery 9 Provide a 12x7 helpline 10 Handle the logistics issues 11 Collect money from the customers 12 Increase customer turnup 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 1 1 0 8 1 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 1 10 1 0 0 1 11 0 0 1 0 12 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

Transitivity Matrix
S no. ISSUES 1 Need fund to start the business 2 Register the company Develop a website of the 3 company 4 Setup an office Manager and delivery men to 5 manage the business Approach restaurants in the 6 city Advertise the company to 7 customers in the city 8 Provide on time delivery 9 Provide a 12x7 helpline 10 Handle the logistics issues Collect money from the 11 customers 12 Increase customer turnup
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 9 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 11 12 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

Iteration 1
Reachability and Antecedent Set

Reachability 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12

## Antecedent 1 1,2 1,2,3,4,5,6 1,4 1,4,5 1,2,3,4,5,6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9

1,4,5,8,9,10 1,4,5,9 1,4,5,9,10 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,12

8 9 10 11 12

level

## 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 2,3,6,7,11,12 3,6,7,11,12 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 3,6,7,11,12 7,12

8,11,12 7,8,9,10,11,12 8,10,11,12 11 12

1 1

Iteration 2
S no. ISSUES 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 8 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 9 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 10 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 Need fund to start the business 2 Register the company Develop a website of the 3 company 4 Setup an office 5 Manager and delivery men to manage the business 6 Approach restaurants in the city 7 Advertise the company to customers in the city 8 Provide on time delivery 9 Provide a 12x7 helpline

## 10 Handle the logistics issues

Iteration 2
ITERATION 2
Reachability and Antecedent Set Reachability

Antecedent 1 1,2

Intersection set 1 2

level

1 2

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 2,3,6,7

3
4 5 6 7 8 9

3,6,7
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 3,5,6,7,8,9,10 3,6,7 7 8 7,8,9,10

1,2,3,4,5,6
1,4 1,4,5 1,2,3,4,5,6 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9 1,4,5,8,9,10 1,4,5,9

3,6
4 5 3,6 7 8 9 2 2

10

8,10

1,4,5,9,10

10

Final Result
S no. 11 12 7 8 3 6 10 2 9 5 FINAL RESULT NAME
we need to collect money from the customers

we have to increase customer turnup. we need to advertise the company to customers in the city we have to provide on time delivery
we have to develop a website of the company

LEVEL 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5

we need to approach restaurants in the city we have to handle the logistics issues
we need to register the company we have to provide a 12x7 helpline we need a manager and delivery men to manage the business we have to setup an office we need fund to start the business

4 1

6 7

ISM Model
11
Collect money from the customers

12

Level I

Level II

## Handle the logistics issues

Level III 10

6 2
Register the company Provide a 12x7 helpline Level IV 9

Level V

4 1

Setup an office

Level VI

## Need fund to start the business

Level VII

Class assignment
Tell the steps involved in ISM Do the factor analysis for global warming Site some possible areas where ISM can be applied