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Basic Principles and Fundamental Equations Darcy's law. Volume elasticity of aquifer. Differential-equation governing groundwater flow. Hydraulic boundaries. Flow from and to stream. Flow net and numerical analysis of water levels. Water logging and Salinity Definition of water logging. Salinity. Environmental impacts of water logging and salinity. Mechanism of destruction and remedial measures. Drainage Purpose of drainage. Drainage needs. Water table. Water movements in subsoil, permeability and methods of determination of permeability. Design of Drainage Systems Surface drainage. Design of open drains. Maintenance, Alignment of drainage system. Methods of construction. Subsurface drainage: tile drains, mole drains, determining the depth and spacing of drains. Drainage coefficient, size of the tile drain, outlets for drains, envelope material, maintenance of tile drains and interceptor drains.

Land Reclamation Soil fertility. Factors affecting soil fertility. Nutrient elements in the soil. Land reclamation of agricultural lands, coastal areas and strip-mines, methods of land reclamation. Harmful effects of land reclamation Canal Lining Lining and its types. Financial justification and economics of canal lining. Design of lined irrigation channels, permissible velocities in lined channels Cross Drainage Structures Introduction. Classification. Design of cross drainage structures

Major Drainage Projects of Pakistan Introduction to various drainage projects of Pakistan

Books recommended : Land Drainage Cambert K. Smendena and David W. Rycroft Cornell University Press, New York Drainage Engineering James N. Luthin Rober E Krieger Publishers Company New York Drainage of Agricultural Land in Pakistan Dr. Nazir Ahmed Shahzad Nazeer, Gulberg-1I1 Lahore

the velocity or flow rate moving within the aquifer the average time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a point located downstream

Darcys law provides an accurate description of the flow of ground water in almost all hydrogeologic environments.

Flow rate determined by Head loss dh = h1 - h2

Henri Darcy established empirically that the flux of water through a permeable formation is proportional to the distance between top and bottom of the soil column. The constant of proportionality is called the hydraulic conductivity (K).

V = Q/A, V h, and V 1/L

V = K (h/L) and since Q = VA (A = total area) Q = KA (dh/dL)

K represents a measure of the ability for

flow through porous media:

Gravels -

0.1 to 1 cm/sec

Sands Silts -

10-2 to 10-3 cm/sec

10-4 to 10-5 cm/sec

Clays -

10-7 to 10-9 cm/sec

Darcys Law holds for:

1. Saturated flow and unsaturated flow
2. Steady-state and transient flow

3. Flow in aquifers and aquitards

4. Flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems 5. Flow in isotropic or anisotropic media 6. Flow in rocks and granular media

V is the specific discharge (Darcy velocity). () indicates that V occurs in the direction of the decreasing head. Specific discharge has units of velocity. The specific discharge is a macroscopic concept, and is easily measured. It should be noted that Darcys velocity is different from the microscopic velocities associated with the actual paths of individual particles of water as they wind their way through the grains of sand. The microscopic velocities are real, but are probably impossible to measure.

Darcy velocity is a fictitious velocity since it assumes that flow occurs across the entire cross-section of the soil sample. Flow actually takes place only through interconnected pore channels.

Av voids

A = total area

From the Continuity Eqn:

Q = A VD = AV Vs
Where: Q = flow rate A = total cross-sectional area of material AV = area of voids Vs = seepage velocity VD = Darcy velocity

Therefore: VS = VD (A/AV) Multiplying both sides by the length of the medium (L) VS = VD ( AL / AVL ) = VD ( VT / VV ) Where: VT = total volume VV = void volume By Definition, Vv / VT = n, the soil porosity Thus VS = VD / n

A confined aquifer has a source of recharge. K for the aquifer is 50 m/day, and n is 0.2. The piezometric head in two wells 1000 m apart is 55 m and 50 m respectively, from a common datum. The average thickness of the aquifer is 30 m, and the average width of aquifer is 5 km.

(a) the rate of flow through the aquifer (b) the average time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a point 4 km downstream

Cross-Sectional area = (30) (5 x 1000) = 15 x 104 m2

Hydraulic gradient = (55-50)/1000 = 5 x 10-3

Rate of Flow for K = 50 m/day

Q = (50 m/day) (15 x 104 m2) (5 x 10-3)

= 37,500 m3/day

Darcy Velocity: VD = Q/A

= (37,500 m3/day) / (15 x 104 m2) = 0.25 m/day

Seepage Velocity: Vs = VD/n = (0.25) / (0.2) = 1.25 m/day (about 4.1 ft/day) Time to travel 4 km downstream: T = (4 x1000 m) / (1.25 m/day) = 3200 days or 8.77 years This example shows that water moves very slowly underground.

1. For Reynolds Number, Re > 10 or where the flow is turbulent, as in the immediate vicinity of pumped wells.

2. Where water flows through extremely fine-grained materials (colloidal clay)

Darcys Law: Example 2

A channel runs almost parallel to a river, and they are 2000 ft apart. The water level in the river is at an elevation of 120 ft and 110 ft in the channel. A pervious formation averaging 30 ft thick and with K of 0.25 ft/hr joins them. Determine the rate of seepage or flow from the river to the channel.

Confining Layer


30 ft

The solution

Consider a 1-ft length of river (and channel). Q = KA [(h1 h2) / L]

Where: A = (30 x 1) = 30 ft2 K = (0.25 ft/hr) (24 hr/day) = 6 ft/day

Therefore, Q = [(6) (30) (120 110)] / 2000 = 0.9 ft3/day/ft length = 0.9 ft2/day

Constant Head

Falling Head

Apply Darcys Law to find K: V/t = Q = KA(h/L) or: K = (VL) / (Ath) Where: V = volume flowing in time t A = cross-sectional area of the sample L = length of sample h = constant head t = time of flow