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By: Abhishek ..


What is automation? Difference between automation & industrialization History of automation Impact on industry Effect of automaton on industry Types of Automation Advantage Disadvantage Applications

What is automation?

Automation is the use of control system and information technologies reducing the need for human intervention

Difference between automation & industrialization

Earlier Lathe Machine

Computerised Lathe Machine

History of automation
Mankind has always tried to use technologies in order to improve his

life. The wheel, for instance, was invented in order to transport goods saving forces and to move more quickly. The discovery of fire helped to heat him and to defend himself from wild animals. The first automations in fact were born in the factories, where at the end of the 19th century the first applications of electricity permitted to make some automated operations, without the intervention of a human being. Slowly then there has been a shift from manual jobs to automated jobs, from simple tools relied to the ability of a person to process chains controlled by programmable controllers. That's why many jobs disappeared and new ones were born,and others have completely been transformed.

Earlier Grass Cutter Machine

Automated Grass Cutter

Impact On Industry
The impact of industrial automation may vary
significantly between industries
In process industries the main effect of new

technologies is on process control

While in batch industry it is over the production process


Effect of automaton on industry

Effect of automation may be divided into following section

Quality Control

In Production System
It does not reflect the realities of manufacturing industry, as all production normally takes place under a combination of conditions, including specialised and general purpose machinery, skilled and semi-skilled workers, and varying volumes and varieties of output.

Quality Control
Improve quality of production Easier control is obtained in the quality

of production due to fast time response of a controller than a manual operation

Types Of Automation
Automated machines can be subdivided into two large categories
Open-loop machines
Closed-loop machines

Open-loop Machines
Open-loop machines are devices that, once started, go through a cycle and then stop.

Basic principle
Reference Input Signal

Controlled output

Control Element


Closed-loop Machines
Closed-loop machines are the machines which require feedback mechanism .
Closed-loop machines are devices capable of responding to new instructions at some point in their operation. The instructions may come from the operation being performed itself or from a human operator. The ability of a machine to change its operation based on new information is known as feedback.

Basic principle
Command Error detector
Reference Input Signal

Controlled output

Control Element


Feedback Element

Integration with business systems Increased productivity Reduction of labor costs . Customers who choose industrial automation can

improve safety and quality Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. Making tasks that are beyond the human capabilities such as handling too heavy loads, too large objects, too hot or too cold substances or the requirement to make things too fast or too slow

Increase in complexity of system
Increase in unemployment of labour Capital cost increment

Employees will require training in programming and

interacting with the new robotic equipment. Robots may protect workers from some hazards, but in the meantime, their very presence can create other safety problems. These new dangers must be taken into consideration.

Automated Video surveillance:
Automated video surveillance monitors people and vehicle in real time within a busy environmentThe purpose of a surveillance system is to record properties and trajectories of objects in a given area, generate warnings or notify designated authority in case of occurrence of particular events.

Automated manufacturing:
Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce things in the factory way. Most of the advantages of the automation technology has its influence in the manufacture processes. The main advantage of the automated manufacturing are: higher consistency and quality, reduce the lead times, simplification of production, reduce handling, improve work flow and increase the morale of workers when a good implementation of the automation is made.

Industrial robots
An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications .

A Pick and Place robot in a factory

AUTOMATION A need for development

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