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Name of Institution

Amity School of Business


BBA- Sem III faculty: Richa Manocha

Report

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A report is a formal document written for a specific audience to meet a specific need. It contains Facts of a situation, project or processes. An analysis or interpretation of data, events and records. Inference or conclusions drawn from objective data. Suggestions and recommendations.
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Purpose

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Presenting data. Describing problems and suggesting solution. Recording events and happenings. Analyzing a situation or condition. Giving feedback, suggestions and recommendations.

Types of reports

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Informational and analytical report- an informational report presents facts of a case, problem, condition or situation without analyzing or giving recommendations. The writer has to

collect and compile information.


Analytical report presents data with interpretation and analysis. The writer has to evaluate information and make appropriate inferences.
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Routine and special reports - Routine reports are prepared periodically say daily, weekly, monthly etc. The information may be routine or analytical. A special report is prepared and presented to convey special information related to a single condition, situation, problem or occasion. It may be either informational or analytical. They are source of important decision making in the organization.
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Oral or written report- Oral reports are formal face to face presentation of facts . Written reports are more conventional and have permanent value. Formal and non-formal reports- a formal report is a result of thorough investigation of a problem, condition or situation. They follow a fixed format with pre-determined elements. A non formal report could be a brief account of a specific business activity.
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Writing the report-

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Requirement of objectivity- good report writing presents facts and interprets them logically avoiding presenting writers opinion, biases and attitude. Objectivity as a basis of believabilityMaintaining objectivity will lead to to writer believing that the report is not biased. Need for transition- A well written report should be continuous and all parts should be connected smoothly. This can be achieved by logical
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Cont.

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organization. Transitional sentences and words may be used. Words such as in addition, on the contrary, thus, therefore etc. Maintaining interest- It can be achieved by careful word choice, rhythm, concreteness etc.

Structure of a report

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Title : This is the most-read parts of a report. This is how you attract attention to your writing. The title should reflect what you have done and should bring out any eye-catching factor of your work, for good impact. For completeness of coverage the title should be build around five Ws: who, what, where, when and why. Eg. Analysis of Nokias 2005 Advertising Campaign

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Abstract or Executive summary- The abstract should be short, generally within about 2 paragraphs (250 words or so total). The abstract should contain the essence of the report, based on which the reader decides whether to go ahead with reading the report or not. It can contain the following in varying amounts of detail as is appropriate: main motivation, main design point, essential difference from previous work, methodology, and some eye-catching results if any.
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Introduction: This section should answer the following questions the background the problem Importance of solving the problem statement of past/related work crisply statement of challenges method of solving the problem statement of assumptions summary of the results summary of your contributions
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Past/related work: It is common to have this as a separate section, explaining why what you have done is something novel. If there are lots of past work related very closely to your work, then it makes sense to state upfront as to what the difference in your approach is. On the other hand, if your work is substantially different from past work, then it is better to put the related work at the end. Technical sections: The main body of the report may be divided into multiple sections as the case may be. You may have different sections which delve into different aspects of the problem. The organization of the report here is problem specific.
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Results: This is part of the set of technical sections. You have to answer the following questions in this section: The results are usually presented as tables and graphs. In explaining tables and graphs, you have to explain them as completely as possible. Identify trends in the data. Does the data prove what you want to establish? In what cases are the results explainable, and in what cases unexplainable if any? If you are presenting a lot of results, it may be useful to summarize the main take-away points from all the data in a separate sub-section at the end (or sometimes even at the beginning) of the results section.
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Conclusion- Readers usually read the title, abstract, introduction, and conclusions. In that sense, this section is quite important. You have to crisply state the main take-away points from your work. How has the reader become smarter, or how has the world become a better place because of your work? Future work- This section in some cases is combined along with the "conclusions" section. Here you state aspects of the problem you have not considered and possibilities for further extensions.
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Recommendations- It should be determined by what the readers want or expect. Appendix- questionnaires, tables or reports. Bibliography- It covers the references on the subject of the report listed under categories : books, periodicals and bulletins

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Make sure you mention the background to, and aims of, the investigation Include the basic concepts and theory relating to the investigation. Describe the procedures used. Identify major sources of error and explain how they were dealt with. Only data directly relevant to the calculation of final results should be presented, omit raw data. Graphs are a particularly effective way of presenting results only use table where it would make more sense that providing a graph. Final results should be presented clearly and concisely; include an analysis of errors, but omit details of arithmetical manipulations.

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Summer Internship ReportName of Institution


1.Cover and Title page Certificate Acknowledgement Declaration given by the student Table of contents Executive summary 2. Introduction to the project. Introduction Objective of the study
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3.Methodology The chapter would contain the following things. Sources of data Sample size, if any Methods of data collection Instrument used Tools and techniques of analysis

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3. Literature review: This section for the summer training report would mean writing about the ways in which the organizational realities are similar or different from theory. The management theory dealt with in the report must be written in detail. The Background, Promoters, Company and its Product line, features of the Product, marketing strategies, competitors, Government Policies, taxation aspects, major problems, achievements, share Market position, national and International Image, future Prospects and conclusion
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About the project (assignment or topic) taken in the organization 5. Surveys, Feedback and Data Analysis 6. Suggestion/ Recommendation 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography 9. Appendix/ Annexure

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