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GM

General Motors Truck Group

Dimensional Engineering Seminar


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Variation Simulation Modeling

Date of Publication: January 12, 1998 Latest Revision Date: May 1, 1999

GM

General Motors Truck Group

DIMENSIONAL ENGINEERING
Based on the ASME Y14.5M1994 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard
as amended by the GM Global Addendum-1997

GM

General Motors Truck Group

Copyright c 1998 by General Motors Corp. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the author and publisher.

Seminar Agenda
Objectives Dimensional Engineering Concept ASME Y14.5M-1994 and GM Global Addendum Video - Introduction to GD&T The Language of GD&T Why Use GD&T ? Engineering Drawings - General Review Basic Rules and Definitions Datum Function & Datum Reference Frames Datum Planes, Features and Simulators

Datum Target Areas, Lines, Points and Partial Datum Surfaces


Feature Control Frame Elements Variation Simulation Modeling (VSM) Tolerances of Form Tolerances of Orientation Tolerances of Runout Tolerances of Profile Tolerances of Location

Course Objectives

Develop an awareness of Dimensional Engineering concepts and explain how the techniques are used to understand, control, and help reduce variation in the overall vehicle build process. Introduction to the Build Tolerance Procedure. Provide an overview of the Variation Simulation Modeling (VSM) process and how it is used to predict variation in the vehicle. Provide an introduction to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T), the ASME Y14.5M-1994 Standard including the GM Global Addendum and how the concepts, symbols and terms of GD&T are used in the engineering process.

Dimensional Engineering Concept

Dimensional Engineering is a sub-process within the overall vehicle development cycle, key to achieving robust designs and controlling product definition.

The concept starts with bubble-up and continues through the entire Four Phase Vehicle Development Process. The Team Concept is an integral part of the GMTG Dimensional Engineering approach.

What is GD&T?
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing is an international graphic engineering language designed to allow designers and engineers to say exactly what they mean on engineering drawings. The concepts, symbols and mathematical structure of GD&T provide a precise and logical way to describe the manufacturing tolerance zones that are applied to individual features or groups of features on parts or assemblies.

What is ASME Y14.5M-1994?


The ASME Y14.5M-1994 is the latest revised issue of the common Industrial Standard on dimensioning and tolerancing. The Standard establishes uniform practices for the dimensioning and tolerancing of engineering drawings and related documents. All GD&T rules, concepts, and practices are contained within the current Y14.5M Standard and the GM Global Addendum.

Why a GM Global Addendum?


The GM Global Addendum was written to address and/or clarify concepts and practices described within the ASME Y14.5M-1994 Standard. Sections 1-6 of the addendum represent the consensus of the US Car GD&T Team and have been adopted by GM, Ford, and Chrysler. Sections 7&8 apply specifically to General Motors. The addendum replaces section A91 of the current GM Drafting Standard.

The goal of GD&T is to improve communication !!

The Language of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing


Geometric Characteristic Symbols
FEATURES
TYPE OF TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC

SYMBOL

Straightness
For Individual Features Form Flatness Circularity (roundness) Cylindricity For Individual or Related Features Profile of a Line Profile Profile of a Surface Angularity Orientation Perpendicularity Parallelism For Related Features Position

Location

Concentricity
Symmetry Circular Runout

Runout Total Runout

* *

* Runout symbols may be filled or not filled

The Language of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing


Additional Symbols and Modifiers
TERM
Maximum Material Condition
Least Material Condition Regardless of Feature Size Free State Datum Modifier Projected Tolerance Zone

SYMBOL
M
L

**

s
F P

**

Tangent Plane Modifier


Diameter Symbol All Around Symbol Between Symbol Radius

* *
R CR A *
234.5 ST

Controlled Radius
Datum Feature Symbol Basic Dimension (or Angle) Statistical Tolerance Symbol

* Symbols may be filled or not filled


**
The RFS symbol is no longer used per ASME Y14.5M-1994. It is applicable only on drawings using earlier standards.

The Language of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing


Basic Feature Control Frame
Datum Reference Frame

1 A BC
Tolerance Value Tertiary Primary Geometric Datum Datum Characteristic Symbol Secondary Datum
Each feature control frame contains information identifying a specific feature characteristic to be controlled (geometric characteristic symbol),the limits of error or variation allowed for that characteristic (tolerance value), the point(s) or surfaces from which the characteristic is to be measured (datum reference frame), and the theoretical shape of the tolerance zone that applies (diameter symbol and material condition modifiers). Feature control frame are the basic building blocks of the GD&T language. The ability to accurately interpret the feature control frame is fundamental to understanding other GD&T concepts.

The Language of Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing


Feature Control Frame with Material Condition Modifiers and Diameter Symbol

Tolerance Material Condition Symbol

Diameter Symbol

Datum Material Condition Symbol

1M A BM C
As required, additional symbols are used along with the basic feature control frame to identify specific geometric or dimensional requirements. The above example shows a diameter symbol and two maximum material condition (MMC) symbols that have been added to precisely describe the feature requirements. The diameter symbol describes the cylindrical shape of the feature tolerance zone while the maximum material condition symbols indicate both the feature and secondary datum material condition in which the stated tolerance applies.

Why Use GD&T ?


Manufacturing tolerances acknowledge the fact that dimensional perfection is impossible to achieve. More importantly, from an economic perspective, perfection may be an expensive and inappropriate goal. Unnecessarily small tolerances do not improve quality or performance, they do increase costs. As manufacturing tolerances shrink, production and inspection costs increase rapidly. Properly specified tolerances minimize manufacturing and assembly costs, ensure product performance, and provide a means of assessing and maintaining process controls.

To Maximize Producibility
Parts designed using GD&T methods have maximized producibility because all available manufacturing tolerance has been included.

To Improve Productivity
Using functional tolerancing techniques improves productivity by reducing the potential for the rejection of functional parts.

Functional Performance
Properly applied GD&T assures assembly, interchangeability, and functional performance of all mating details.

Clear Communication
Effective GD&T identifies important dimensional relationships and offers clear communication of functional design requirements.

Uniform Interpretation
Uniform, consistent interpretation of design requirements saves time and money by avoiding errors and controversies resulting from misconceptions and misunderstandings.

Coordinated Datum Locations


GD&T provides a method of maintaining coordination between functional design features, manufacturing processes & inspection practices (coordinated datum locations).

Basic Rules and Definitions

Limits of Size

Unless otherwise specified, the limits of size of a feature prescribe the extent within which variations of geometric form as well as size are allowed. This control applies solely to individual features of size. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 2.7)

FEATURES OF SIZE: MUST BE WITHIN THE SPECIFIED LIMITS OF SIZE

Individual Feature of Size

Rule #1
Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of size of an individual feature prescribe the extent to which variations in its geometric form as well as size are allowed.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 2.7.1)

In other words, features of size require:

PERFECT FORM AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION (MMC)

All Applicable Geometric Tolerances

Rule #2
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) applies, with respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference or both, where no modifying symbol is specified. Maximum Material Condition (MMC) or Least Material Condition (LMC) must be specified on the drawing where it is required
(ASME Y14.5-1994, 2.8a)

Notes:
The default condition described by Rule #2 applies only to drawings using the ASME Y14.5M-1994 standard. Any drawing using an earlier standard will have a different default condition. Circular runout, total runout, concentricity, and symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC.

Definition
Maximum Material Condition
The condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size -- for example, minimum hole diameter or maximum shaft diameter
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.20)

M
WHEN THE PART WEIGHS THE MOST!
The Maximum Material Condition symbol can be used as a tolerance modifier and/or a datum modifier for internal or external features of size. When the MMC symbol is applied as a tolerance modifier, the specified tolerance value applies when the feature is at its extreme limit of size (min hole, max shaft). When the MMC symbol is applied as a datum modifier, the datum is the axis or center plane of the datum feature at its virtual size.

Maximum Material Condition


External Features of Size (Largest Size)
11.75 +/-0.25

MMC Size =

12
14.95 14.90

MMC Size =

14.95

Internal Features of Size (Smallest Size)


12 -0.25
0

MMC Size =

11.75
15 0
+0.1

MMC Size = 15

Definition
Least Material Condition
The condition in which a feature of size contains the least amount of material within the stated limits of size -- for example, maximum hole diameter or minimum shaft diameter
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.19)

L
WHEN THE PART WEIGHS THE LEAST!
The Least Material Condition symbol can also be used as a tolerance modifier and/or a datum modifier for internal or external features of size. When the LMC symbol is applied as a tolerance modifier, the specified tolerance value applies when the feature is at its extreme limit of size (max hole, min shaft). When the LMC symbol is applied as a datum modifier, the datum is the axis or center plane of the datum feature at its LMC size.

Least Material Condition


External Features of Size (Smallest Size)
11.75 +/-0.25

LMC Size =

11.5
14.95 14.90

LMC Size =

14.9

Internal Features of Size (Largest Size)


0 12 -0.25

LMC Size =

12
15 +0.1 0

LMC Size = 15.1

Definition
Regardless of Feature Size
The term used to indicate that a geometric tolerance or datum reference applies at any increment of size of the feature within its size tolerance. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.22)

* S
*
The RFS symbol is no longer required to indicate regardless of feature size conditions for features subject to variations in size (See rule #2 ASME Y14.5M-1994). It is applicable only on drawings using earlier standards.

Definition
Free State Condition
The term used to indicate that a geometric tolerance or datum reference applies in its FREE STATE or unrestrained condition.
(The use of the free state symbol as a datum condition modifier is valid only when the datum default condition is restrained.)

F
When applied to geometric tolerances, the free state symbol indicates that individual or related feature tolerance(s) must be verified with the part in an unrestrained or unclamped condition. When used as a datum modifier, only those datum feature(s) specifically identified as free state (including rests and assists) shall be unrestrained or unclamped when verifying individual or related feature tolerance(s).

Definition
Dimensions, Features and Tolerances
Dimension
A numeric value expressed in appropriate units of measure and used to define the size, location, geometric characteristic, or surface texture of a part or part feature. (ASME Y14.5-1994, 1.3.8)

Feature
The general term applied to a physical portion of a part, such as a surface, pin, tab, hole or slot. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.12)

Feature of size
One cylindrical or spherical surface, or set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces associated with a size dimension. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.17)

Tolerance
The total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary. The tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum limits. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.31)

Tolerance-Bilateral
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.32)

Tolerance-Unilateral
A tolerance in which variation is permitted in one direction from the specified dimension. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.34)

Definition
Basic Dimension
A numerical value used to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orientation or location of a feature or datum target. It is the basis from which permissible variations are established by tolerances on other dimensions, in notes or in feature control frames.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.9)

234.5
30 24

Basic Dimension Basic Angle Basic Diameter

Definition
Datums, Datum Targets, Datum Features and Simulators
Datum
A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.3)

Datum Feature
An actual feature of a part that is used to establish a datum. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.4)

Datum Target
A specified point, line, or area on a part used to establish a datum. (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.7)

Datum Feature Simulator


A surface of adequately precise form contacting the datum feature(s) and used to establish the simulated datum(s).
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.5)

Definition
Virtual Condition
A constant boundary generated by the collective effects of a size features specified MMC or LMC material condition and the geometric tolerance for that material condition.
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 1.3.37)

The calculated virtual condition boundary for a feature is used to determine the worst case inner or outer boundary for that feature. The virtual condition values are used to evaluate assembly requirements for mating parts and to establish sizes for functional gaging elements.

Virtual Condition Boundary


Internal Feature (MMC Concept)
15 +/- 0.5 1M X Y Z

Z
XX

XX

As Shown on Drawing

Virtual Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter

1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC

True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations

Boundary of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit

True (Basic) Position of Hole

Calculating Virtual Condition 14.5 MMC Size of Feature (Minimum Size) 1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance 13.5 Virtual Condition Boundary

Axis Location of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit

THE VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY OF AN INTERNAL FEATURE, SUCH AS A HOLE, REPRESENTS THE LARGEST PERFECTLY LOCATED PIN THAT WILL FIT INTO THE SMALLEST DIAMETER HOLE (MMC) AT THE EXTREME GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE LIMIT.

Virtual Condition Boundary


External Feature (MMC Concept)
12 +/- 0.5 1M L M N

N
XX

XX

As Shown on Drawing
1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC

Virtual Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter

True (Basic) Position of Feature


Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition 12.5 MMC Size of Feature (Maximum Size) 1 Applicable Geometric Tolerance 13.5 Virtual Condition Boundary

THE VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY OF AN EXTERNAL FEATURE, SUCH AS A PIN, REPRESENTS THE SMALLEST PERFECTLY LOCATED HOLE THAT WILL ACCEPT THE LARGEST DIAMETER PIN (MMC) AT THE EXTREME GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE LIMIT.

Rules and Definitions Quiz


Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. The use of GD&T improves productivity. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC.

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions.


A surface on a part is considered a feature. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance . A free state datum modifier applies to assists & rests. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

Material Condition Quiz`


Fill in blanks

Internal Features
10.75 +0.25/- 0 23.45 +0.05/- 0.25 123. 50 +/- 0.1 .895 .890

MMC

LMC

External Features
10.75 +0/- 0.25 23.45 +0.05/- 0.25 123. 50 +/- 0.1 .890 .885

MMC

LMC

Calculate appropriate values

Blank Page

Datum Function and Datum Reference Frames

Datum Requirements Functional


Datums Should Be Consistent with Part Assembly Interfaces Datum Features Should Minimize Assembly Variation Datums Should Represent Actual Part Feature Relationships

Repeatable
Datum Features Must Be Dimensionally Stable Datum Features Must Provide Secure, Repeatable Orientation and Immobilization of a Part or Assembly as Required Datums Planes Should Be Independent to Avoid Sensitivity

Coordinated
Datum Reference Frame Establishes a Common Basis for Control and Measurement During All Process Phases of: Manufacture Inspection Assembly Datum Features Must Be Common and Coordinated With: Stamping Detail Gages Assembly Tooling Assembly Gages

Datum Feature Selection and Coordination


Part features selected to establish datum reference planes on sheet metal panels should be coordinated with tooling locators (CDs) used during the assembly process and datum features used to locate the panel during detail inspection. When selecting datum features, careful consideration should be given to the total number of datum target locations required to physically stabilize part geometry. Assembly tooling fixtures are often required to form and hold the nominal contours of flexible sheet metal parts during welding operations. As a result, the assembly process will frequently make use of more part locators than would be appropriate for a detail inspection tool. Although the coordination of datum features is recommended to ensure quality vehicle assembly, it is important to recognize that all tooling locators (CDs) should not necessarily be considered datums. The quantity and location of datum targets appropriate for each application is based heavily on engineering common sense and experience. Too many datum target areas can over constrain and distort a panel. This could mask actual error and compromise the integrity of inspection data. Too few and the part may not be supported adequately, which can lead to poor or marginal gage repeatability.

Six Degrees of Freedom

Y Axis Z Axis
Rotational
Linear

X Axis
Linear

X Axis
Rotational

Y Axis
Rotational

Z Axis
Linear

Datum Reference Frame

TERTIARY DATUM PLANE

SECONDARY DATUM PLANE

90 o

90 o

90 o

PRIMARY DATUM PLANE

Datum Reference Frame

PART PART

Fixed
FIRST DATUM PLANE

PRIMARY DATUM
SECOND DATUM PLANE THIRD DATUM PLANE

PART PART

PART PART

Fixed

Fixed

SECONDARY DATUM

TERTIARY DATUM

Basic Datum Sequence

Datum Reference Frame


In this example, the first, or primary datum plane provides partial constraint to the part and prevents free movement in one (1) linear and two (2) rotational degrees of freedom. Primary planar datums requires a minimum of three points of contact on a feature surface to constrain part movement. However, the part surface may actually contact the datum plane or the simulated datum surface in an infinite number of places.

Fixed

Free

Free

Fixed
PART PART PART

Free Fixed Fixed Free Fixed

Free

FIRST DATUM PLANE

PRIMARY DATUM

Datum Reference Frame


The second, or secondary datum plane provides additional part constraint and prevents free movement in one (1) additional linear and one (1) rotational degree of freedom. Secondary planar datums require a minimum of two points of contact on a feature surface to constrain part movement. However, the part surface may actually contact the datum plane or the simulated datum surface in an infinite number of places.

Fixed
SECOND DATUM PLANE

Fixed

Fixed

PART PART PART

Fixed Free

Free Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed

SECONDARY DATUM

Datum Reference Frame


The third, or tertiary datum plane provides full part constraint and prevents free movement along the one (1) remaining linear degree of freedom. Tertiary planar datums require a minimum of one point of contact on a feature surface to restrict the last degree of freedom. However, the part surface may actually contact the datum plane or the simulated datum surface in an infinite number of places.

THIRD DATUM PLANE

Fixed Fixed

Fixed

Fixed

PART PART PART

Fixed Fixed

Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed

TERTIARY DATUM

Datum Planes, Features, and Simulated Datums

Datum Feature
(Actual Surface on Part)

Part
(Workpiece)

(True Geometric Counterpart of Datum Feature)

Datum Plane

Simulated Datum
(Surface on Gage or Fixture Locator)

Datum Feature Symbols

AB

Datum Feature Symbol -- Former Practice


(ANSI Y14.5M-1982 and earlier standards)

A
Base (triangle) may be filled or not filled

AB

Datum Feature Symbol -- Current Standard


(ASME Y14.5M-1994 standard)

Datum Target Symbols


Datum Target Label Datum Target Number

A1
Optional methods of specifying shape and size of gaging element (Datum Target Area)

General Datum Target Symbol

25
25

A1
Shape of gaging element (where applicable)

A1
Target area size (where applicable)

Circular Datum Target Area Symbol

12

A1
May be filled or not filled

Square Datum Target Area Symbol

10 X 20

A1

Rectangular Datum Target Area Symbol

Datum Targets
12 A1 PARTIAL SURFACE CONTACT

15

PART

15

DATUM BLOCK

Method Showing Target Zone and Location


PARTIAL SURFACE CONTACT

12 A1

15

PART

15

DATUM BLOCK

Method Showing Target Location Only

Datum Target Area

Datum Targets

A1

120

A1

As Shown on Drawing Means This:


LINE CONTACT

PART

LOCATING PIN
Datum Target Line

Datum Target Line

Datum Targets

A1

120 A1 25

As Shown on Drawing Means This:


PART

POINT CONTACT LOCATING PIN

Datum Target Point

Datum Target Point

Datum Targets

A 50

As Shown on Drawing Means This:


50
LENGTH OF DATUM CONTACT

TRUE GEOMETRIC COUNTERPART OF PARTIAL SURFACE

Partial Datum Surface

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Datum target areas are theoretically exact. Datum features are imaginary. Primary datums have only three points of contact. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. Datum simulators are used to represent datums.

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Datums are actual part features.


All datum features must be dimensionally stable. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. Tertiary datums are not always required. All tooling locators (CDs) are used as datums. Datums should represent functional features.

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference frame are called _______, _________, and ________. 2. An unrestrained part will exhibit _________and __________
degrees of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain _________ and __________ degrees of freedom. 4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain ___
degrees of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will restrain all ___ degrees of freedom. 6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to ________ ________ of a part in a gage or tool. 7. A datum must be __________, __________, and ___________. 8. A ______ _______ is an actual feature on a part. 9. A ______ is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane. 10. A _____ ________ is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six

Feature Control Frame Elements

Feature Control Frame Elements

A C

B
2.5 A-B C M D M

2.5 A-B C M D M
Multiple Datum Features (Primary)

Feature Control Frame with Multiple Datum Features (Shown as Primary)

Feature Control Frame Elements


B
0.5
M

A B

C 0.5
M

Datum Feature Symbol

A B

Feature Control Frame

Combined Feature Control Frame with Datum Feature Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements


B
0.5 diameter tolerance zone * 20 minimum projected height of tolerance zone *

5X M14X1-6H 0.5 M P 20 A B

A
M
* Projected tolerance zones lie entirely outside the boundary of the part feature

Minimum Projected Height of Tolerance Zone

0.5

M P

20 A B M

Projected Tolerance Zone Symbol

Feature Control Frame with Projected Tolerance Zone Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements


A
B

1 ABC

1 ABC
All Around Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ All Around Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements


1 A BC Y Y

X X

1ABC Y

Between Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ Between Symbol

Feature Control Frame Elements

14.95 AVG 14.80

Free State Symbol

Feature Control Frame with Free State Symbol (Used as a Tolerance Zone Modifier)

Feature Control Frame Elements


0.5 A-D
F

A1

A2

CM

C B
A4 D1 A3

Note: In this example Datum target D1 is unrestrained

0.5

A-D

Free State Symbol


The freestate datum condition modifier can only be applied when the specified drawing default condition is restrained

Feature Control Frame with Free State Symbol (Used as a Datum Condition Modifier)

Feature Control Frame Elements


2.5
M
ST

A1

A2

ABM CM

C B
A4 A3

2.5

ST

A B M CM

Statistical Tolerance Symbol

Feature Control Frame w/ Symbol Indicating the Tolerance was Statistically Determined

Feature Control Frame Elements


Two Geometric Characteristic Symbols

2.5 A B C 0.5 A B
Two Single Segment Profile Control Frames

One Geometric Characteristic Symbol

2.5 A B C 0.5 A B
One Composite Profile Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements

Two Geometric Characteristic Symbols

1.5 0.2

M
M

A B C A B

Two Single Segment True Position Control Frames

One Geometric Characteristic Symbol

1.5 0.2

M
M

A B C A B

One Composite True Position Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both specified tolerance zones simultaneously

2.5 A B C 0.5 2.5 A B C 0.5 A 2.5 A B C 0.5 A B 2.5 A B C 0.5 A B C

Feature Location & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C Feature Form Refinement Only (No Datum Reference)

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum features B & C

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum feature A only

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum feature C only

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum features A & B

Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C Feature Location, Form & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C

When two single-segment feature control frames are applied to an individual feature, the two segments cannot contain identical datum references. In this case, the larger of the two tolerances is redundant and does not apply.

Two Single-Segment Profile Control Frames

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both specified tolerance zones simultaneously

2.5 A B C 0.5 2.5 A B C 0.5 A


Feature Locating Reference

Feature Location & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C Feature Form Refinement Only (No Datum Reference)

Feature Location Only to Datum features A,B & C Feature Form & Orientation to Datum feature A only

2.5 A B C 0.5 A B
Feature Form & Orientation Reference

Feature Location Only to Datum features A,B & C Feature Form & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C (when Datum B is a surface)

2.5 A B C 0.5 A B C

Feature Location Only to Datum features A,B & C Feature Form & Orientation to Datum features A, B & C (when Datum B is an axis)

When a composite feature control frame is applied to an individual feature, the two segments can contain identical datum references. In this case, each tolerance is applied to a different component of the composite requirement.

Composite Profile Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both specified tolerance zones simultaneously

1.5 A B C 0.2

Feature Location, Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A, B & C Coaxial Refinement Only (No Datum Reference)

1.5 A B C 0.2 A
1.5 A B C 0.2 A B 1.5 A B C 0.2 A B C

Feature Location & Orientation to Datum features B & C Feature-to-feature relationship & Orientation refinement to Datum feature A

Feature Location & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum feature C only Feature Location, Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A & B Feature Location, Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A, B & C Feature Location, Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A, B & C

When two single-segment feature control frames are applied to an individual feature, the two segments cannot contain identical datum references. In this case, the larger of the two tolerances is redundant and does not apply.

Two Single-Segment True Position Control Frames

Feature Control Frame Elements


All feature elements must lie within both specified tolerance zones simultaneously

1.5 A B C 0.2 1.5 A B C 0.2 A


Pattern Locating Tolerance Zone Framework (PLTZF)

Pattern Location, Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A, B & C Coaxial Refinement Only (No Datum Reference)

Pattern Location & Orientation to Datum features B & C Pattern Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum feature A

1.5 A B C 0.2 A B
Feature Relating Tolerance Zone Framework (FRTZF)

Pattern Location Only to Datum features A, B & C Pattern Orientation & Feature-to-feature relationship to Datum features A, B & C (when Datum B is a surface)

1.5 A B C 0.2 A B C

Pattern Location Only to Datum features A, B & C Pattern Orientation and Feature-tofeature relationship to Datum features A, B & C (when Datum B is an axis)

When a composite feature control frame is applied to an individual feature, the two segments can contain identical datum references. In this case, each tolerance is applied to a different component of the composite requirement.

Composite True Position Control Frame

Feature Control Frame Review

Diameter Symbol

Material Modifier (Tolerance) Datum Reference Frame

1M A B C
Geometric Characteristic Symbol Tolerance Secondary Datum

Projected Tolerance Symbol

Minimum Projected Zone Height

0.5
Datum Feature Symbol

20 A B M
Material Modifier (Datum)

Feature Control Frame Review

Composite True Position Symbol

Pattern Locating Tolerance Zone

0.5 0.2

M M

A B C A B

Pattern Locating Tolerance Zone Framework (PLTZF) Feature Relating Tolerance Zone Framework (FRTZF)

Feature Relating Tolerance Zone

Composite Profile Symbol (Profile of a Surface)

Feature Profile Locating Tolerance Feature Profile Locating Datum Reference

2.5 A B C 0.5 A B
Feature Profile Form/Orientation Tolerance

Feature Profile Form/Orientation Datum Reference

Notes

E N D

Seminar Agenda
Objectives Dimensional Engineering Concept ASME Y14.5M-1994 and GM Global Addendum Video - Introduction to GD&T The Language of GD&T Why Use GD&T ? Engineering Drawings - General Review Basic Rules and Definitions Datum Function & Datum Reference Frames Datum Planes, Features and Simulators

Datum Target Areas, Lines, Points and Partial Datum Surfaces


Feature Control Frame Elements Tolerances of Form Tolerances of Orientation Tolerances of Runout Tolerances of Profile Tolerances of Location

Rules and Definitions Quiz


Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. The use of GD&T improves productivity. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC.

FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions.


A surface on a part is considered a feature. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. A free state datum modifier applies to assists & rests. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

Material Condition Quiz


Fill in blanks

Internal Features
10.75 +0.25/-0 23.45 +0.05/-0.25 123. 50 +/-0.1 0.895 0.890

MMC

LMC

10.75

11

23.20
123.40 0.890
MMC

23.50
123.60 0.895
LMC

External Features
10.75 +0/-0.25 23.45 +0.05/-0.25 123. 50 +/-0.1 0.890 0.885

10.75 23.50 123.60 0.890

10.50 23.20 123.40 0.885

Calculate appropriate values

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-12 True or False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Datum target areas are theoretically exact. Datum features are imaginary. Primary datums have only three points of contact. The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D, F/A, & C/C. Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. Datum simulators are used to represent datums.

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE

7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Datums are actual part features.


All datum features must be dimensionally stable. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. Tertiary datums are not always required. All tooling locators (CDs) are used as datums. Datums should represent functional features.

Datum Quiz
Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below)

1. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference


frame are called primary, secondary, and tertiary.

2. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees


of freedom.

3. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational


degrees of freedom.

4. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees
of freedom.

5. The primary, secondary and tertiary datum planes together will


restrain all six degrees of freedom.

6. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement


of a part in a gage or tool.

7. A datum must be functional, repeatable, and coordinated. 8. A datum feature is an actual feature on a part. 9. A datum is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane. 10. A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a
simulated datum.

restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six