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Connections between heat and work

Connections Between Heat and Work

In studying thermodynamics
Surroundings

SYSTEM

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


If objects A, B and C are in contact with each other,

and A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, then A is in thermal equilibrium with C.

First Law of Thermodynamics


Heat (Q)

Internal Energy (U)

Work (W)

First Law of Thermodynamics


The change in internal energy (U) is equal to the

difference of the heat (Q) added/removed to/from the system and the work (W) done on/by the system.

U = Q W

Sign Conventions for the First Law


For Heat (Q) + if the heat is added to the system if the heat is removed from the system
For Work (W) + if work is done by the system if work is done on the system

Sample Word Problem on 1st Law


Suppose 2500 J of heat is added to a system and 1800 J

of work is done on the system. What is the change in internal energy of the system?

Thermodynamic Processes
Adiabatic (constant heat)
Isothermal (constant temperature) Isochoric (constant volume)

Isobaric (constant pressure)

Second Law of Thermodynamics


Review: How does heat flow?
Would it be possible for heat to flow from an area of

lower to higher temperature?

Second Law of Thermodynamics


Clausius Statement

Heat can flow spontaneously from a hot object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object.

Second Law and Heat Engines


Hot Reservoir

ENGIN E

WORK

Cold Reservoir

Heat Engine
It is a machine that converts heat energy into

mechanical energy. Can be classified as external combustion and internal combustion engines.

Water-Tube Type
It is common with

stationary engines and turbines. Water is allowed to pass through tubes while the flames and hot gaseous products of combustion follow a path over around tubes.

Fire-Tube Type
Used in steam

locomotives Flames and heat are made to enter the tubes which are horizontally arranged in the boiler and are surrounded by water.

Other Classification of Steam Engines


Condensing type
Non-condensing type

Gasoline Engines
These are engines whose

working substance is gasoline. It is internally burned unlike steam engines.

Parts of a Gasoline Engine

Intake Stroke

Compression Stroke

Power Stroke

Exhaust Stroke

Diesel Engines
These are engines whose

working substance is diesel. It is internally burned unlike steam engines.

Diesel Engine Structure

How efficient are heat engines?

Thermal Efficiency of an Engine


It is defined as the ratio of the net work (W) done by

the engine during one cycle to the energy absorbed at the higher temperature (QH) during the cycle.

Sample Problem on Thermal Efficiency


Find the efficiency of a heat engine that absorbs 2000 J of energy from a hot reservoir and exhausts 1500 J to the cold reservoir.
Your car is powered by a heat engine and does 3.0 x 107 J of work getting you up a small hill. If the heat engine is 80 percent efficient, how much heat did it use and how much did it exhaust?

Sadi Carnot
A French engineer who

established the concept of an ideal engine known as the Carnot engine. He developed the Carnots theorem which states that No real engine operating between two energy reservoirs can be more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same two reservoirs.

Basic Concept of the Carnot Engine


The ideal efficiency of an engine depends on the

difference of the hot and cold reservoirs. You cant have it all.

Sample Word Problems on Carnot Efficiency


If an engine extracts heat from a 2730 K reservoir and

expels heat at 1730 K reservoir, what is its efficiency? How about if the engine extracts heat from a 10 730 K reservoir instead? What if the engine reservoirs are working at the same temperatures?

Wait a minute
It is possible to produce work from heat that is heat

transferred from a hot reservoir to a cold reservoir. Would it be possible to do the reverse?

Second Law of Thermodynamics


Kelvin-Planck Statement

It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a cycle, produces no effect other than the absorption of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work.

Heat Pumps
These are heat engines running in reverse.
Heat is transferred from a cold reservoir to a hot

reservoir by performing work. This is done through the aid of phase change. Examples are refrigerators and air conditioning units.

Refrigerators

Questions to Ponder
What do you notice with heat engines and heat

pumps? What do they have in common? What is its impact to the environment?

Entropy
Natural processes tend to undergo increased state of

disorder. This state of disorder is defined as entropy.

Second Law of Thermodynamics


On entropy

The total entropy of an isolated system that undergoes a change can never decrease.

Entropy increases

Third Law of Thermodynamics


It is impossible to reach absolute zero.