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Hire-Purchase Finance and Consumer Credit

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Hire-purchase is a mode of financing the price of goods to be sold on a future date. Hire purchase is a type of instalment credit under which the hire-purchaser agrees to take goods on hire at a stated rental with an option to purchase the goods

It is an agreement relating to a transaction in which goods are let on hire, the purchase price is to be paid in installments and the hirer is allowed the option to purchase the goods paying all the installments. Though the option to purchase the goods/assets is allowed in the very beginning, it can be exercised only at the end of the agreement.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The essence of the agreement is that the property in the goods does not pass at the time of the agreement but remains in the intending seller (hire-vendor) and only passes when the option is exercised by the hirer (intending hire-purchaser). In contrast, in installment sale the ownership in the goods passes on to the purchaser simultaneously with the payment of the initial/first installment. The hire-purchase also differs from the installment sale in terms of the call option and right of termination.

Conceptual Framework
Under the down payment plan of hire-purchase, the hirer has to make a down payment of 20-25 per cent of the cost and pay the balance in equated monthly installments (EMIs).

As an alternative, under a deposit-linked plan the hirer has to invest a specified amount in the fixed deposit of the finance company which is returned together with interest after the payment of the last EMI by the hirer.

Leasing Vs Hire purchase


Similarly, hire-purchase and leasing as modes of financing are also differentiated in several respects such as:

Ownership of the asset/equipment and its capitalisation,


Depreciation charge Magnitude Extent of financing Maintenance Tax benefits The RBI treats lease and hire purchase on a par and stopped the distinctive classification of leasing and hire purchase companies as the factors for which leasing was used for P& M and hire purchase for vehicles have vanished over time

Hire purchase Installment


The hire-purchase installment has two components: (i) interest/finance charge and (ii) recovery of principal.

The interest component is based on a flat rate of interest while effective rate is applied to the declining balance of the original amount to determine the interest component of each installment. For a given flat rate interest , the equivalent effective rate of interest is higher
During the hire-period, the hirer can opt for early repayment/purchase of the equipment/asset by paying the remaining installments minus an interest rebate. The hirer has the right to terminate the contract after giving due notice.

Flat rate Vs Effective rate of interest /Annual percentage rate


Approximation approach Trial and error approach Computation of APR /ERI (payment in arrear) I= N/N+1 *2F Computation of APR /ERI (Payment in advance) I =N/N-1*2F Where I = APR /ERIs N=Number of repayments F = Flat rate of interest per unit

Consumer credit
Consumer credit includes all asset-based financing plans offered to primarily individuals to acquire durable consumer goods. In a typical consumer credit deal, the customer pays a fraction of the cash purchase price on delivery of the goods and the balance is paid together with interest over a specified period of time. Salient Features: Parties to the transaction(Bipartite or tripartite)

Structure of transaction (Hire purchase /Conditional sale/Credit sale)

Consumer credit
Modes of Payment:The consumer credit plans/schemes can be down payment type or deposit-linked type.

Payment period and Rate of Interest (12- 60 monthly installments)


Security :The loan is secured by a first charge on the concerned equipment. Evaluation:Can be made with reference to effective rate of interest, rebate for early prepayments and charge for delayed payments.

Illustration 5.5 (Flat and Effective Rates of Interest) The Hypothetical Consumer Finance Ltd (HCFL) has structured a consumer credit deal for Rs 4,00,000 on the following basis: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Monthly repayment period Equated monthly installment _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 Rs 38,000 24 Rs 21,400 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Required: Compute the flat and effective rates of interest for each alternative/option. Solution Flat and Effective Rates of Interest _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Repayment period (months) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 24 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Total charge for credit Rs 56,000 Rs 56,800 Flat rate of interest (%) 0.14 0.142 Effective rate of interest (%) 0.2585 0.2726 _______________________________________________________________________________________________

Working Notes 1. Total annual charge for credit = (Rs 38,000 x 12) Rs 4,00,000 = Rs 56,000 Rs 56,000 = ------------------- x 100 = 0.14 Rs 4.00,,000 n = -------- x 2 F n+1 = [Rs 21,400 x 24) (Rs 4,00,000)] 2 = Rs 56,800 Rs 56,000 = ------------------ x 100 = 0.142 Rs 4.00,000 n = ---------- x 2F n+1

2.

Flat rate of interest

3.

Effective rate of interest

12 = ----- x 28 = 25.85 per cent 13

24 = ----- x 28.4 = 27.26 per cent 25

Nominal Versus Effective Interest Rates


Nominal Interest Rate: Interest rate quoted based on an annual period Effective Interest Rate: Actual interest earned or paid in a year or some other time period

18% Compounded Monthly


What It Really Means?
Interest rate per month (i) = 18%/12 = 1.5% Number of interest periods per year (N) = 12

In words,
Bank will charge 1.5% interest each month on your unpaid balance, if you borrowed money You will earn 1.5% interest each month on your remaining balance, if you deposited money

18% compounded monthly


Question: Suppose that you invest $1 for 1 year at 18% compounded monthly. How much interest would you earn? Solution: F $1(1 i )12 $1(1 0.015)12 = $1.1956 ia 0.1956 or 19.56%
18%

= 1.5%

Effective Annual Interest Rate (Yield)

ia (1 r / M ) 1
M
r = nominal interest rate per year ia = effective annual interest rate M = number of interest periods per year

18%

: 1.5%

18% compounded monthly or 1.5% per month for 12 months

=
19.56 % compounded annually

Practice Problem
Suppose your savings account pays 9% interest compounded quarterly. If you deposit $10,000 for one year, how much would you have?

First leasing company offers an asset on hire purchase to Indian Breweries on the following: Cost =Rs. 0.1 million Rate of interest =10% (flat) Hire purchase period = 4 years Payment in yearly installments in arrear Down payment =20% Tax =30% The asset has 4 years life with zero salvage value.what is the effective interest rate.

Example

Solution
Amt of loan = Rs .1 million Rs ..02 million = Rs .8 million Interest at flat rate =Rs 3,20,000 Annual equated installment = (8,00,000+3,20,000)/4 Amount of interest each year

Year 1 2 3 4

Interest 3,20,000*4/10= Rs 128000 3,20,000*3/10 =Rs 96,000 3,20,000*2/10= Rs 64,000 3,20,000*1/10= Rs. 32000

The implied interest rate calculation


Year Principal amount Installment Interest paid Principal repaid 2,00,000 2,80,000 2,80,000 2,80,000 2,80,000 128,000 96,000 64,000 32,000 152,000 184,000 216,000 2,48,000 Outstanding amount 8,00,000 6,48,000 4,64,000 2,48,000 0 1 2 3 4 10,00,000

Implied interest for whole period: 8,00,000 = n=1to 4 2,80,000/ (I+r)n

By interpolation r =15% approx

Illustration
Following details pertain to a company manufacturing air bags required for the luxury cars. Cost of equipment =Rs 5,00,000 Down payment =25% of cost price Number of installments =4 (arrears) Flat rate of interest14% p.a. Disc rate 18% Annual lease rentals = Rs 1,00,000 and lease period =5 years Tax rate 50% Depreciation=SLM and salvage value =Rs 40000 The company is examining two financing alternatives.HP and leasing.You are required to give your opinion about the choice of financing to be adopted by the firm.Also determine interest under three methods.

Solution
Flat rate of interest =14% Cost of equipment =Rs 5,00,000 Down payment 25% = Rs 1,25,000 HP principal amount =Rs 375000 HP interest = 3,75,000*14%*4=Rs 2,10,000 Total HP amount =Rs 3,75,000+2,10,000 =Rs 5,85,000 Annual instalment amount =5,85,000/4 = Rs 1,46,250

ERI by trial and error


s amount Trial I 20% PVIF PV 1,46250 1,46250 1,46250 1,46250 Total .833 .694 .579 .482 1,21,826 1,01,498 84,679 70,493 3,78,496 .826 .683 .564 .467 Trial II 21% PVIF PV 1,20,803 99,889 82,485 68,299 3,71,476

=20% +[3,75,000 3,71,476 ] /3,78,496 3,71,476 = 20.50%

Annual interest under SOYD


Year 1 = 2,10,000*4/10 =Rs 84,000 Year 2 = 2,10,000*3/10 =Rs. 63,000 Year 3 = 2,10,000*2/10=Rs 42000 Year 4= 2,10,000*1/10=Rs21000 Annual interest under SLM For all years = 2,10,000 /4 = 52,500

Year

O/s principal ERI

ERI (interest)

Annual interest
SOYD (interest) SLM (interest ) ERI (Principal paid) 84,000 52,500 69,375

SOYD (Principa l paid)

SLM (Principa l paid)

Annual installme nt (ERI/SO YD/SLM) 1,46,250

3,75,000

76,875

62,250

93,750

3,05,625

62,653

63,000

52,500

83,597

83,250

93,750

1,46,250

2,22,028

45,516

42,000

52,500

1,00,734

1,04,250

93,750

1,46,250

121,294

24,865

21,000

52,500

1,21,294

1,25,250

93,750

1,46,250

Analysis table (using ERI)


S.no. Particulars 1 2 Annual Instalment Annual interest20.5% Cost of HP (2+3) Year 1 2 3 4 5 1,46,250 1,46,250 1,46,250 1,46,250 76,875 62,653 45,516 24,865

3 4 5 6 7 8

Depreciation 1,15,000 1,15,000 1,15,000 1,15,000 1,91,875 1,77,653 1,60,516 1,39,865 88,827 80,258 69,933 40,000 50,312 .847 57,423 .718 65,992 .609 36,317 .516 .437

Tax shield 95,938 (col.4 *50%) Salvage value Net cost of HP (1-5-6) PVF 18%

Analysis table (using ERI)


S.no. 9 10 11 12 13 Particulars PV of net cost of HP Annual lease rental Tax shield on lease rentals Net cost of leasing (10-11) Pv of leasing Year 1 42,614 1,00,000 50,000 50,000 43,250 2 41,230 1,00,000 50,000 50,000 35,900 3 40,189 1,00,000 50,000 50,000 30,450 4 18,776 1,00,000 50,000 50,000 25,800 1,00,000 50,000 50,000 21,850 5

PV of salvage value 17480 Net cash flow under HP = 1,42,809- 17480=125329 Under leasing =1,56,350

Parties to hire purchase agreement


Two parties Sale element of hire purchase contract has been divorced from finance element (tripartite deal) Modalities: The dealer contracts a finance company to finance hire purchase deals Dealer arranges full documents to be completed to make a hire purchase deal. The customer makes the cash down payment which is retained by the dealer Dealer sends the document and finance company purchases the asset.

Modalities (contd..)
The Finance company signs the document and sends a copy to hirer The dealer delivers the good The hirer makes the payment periodically On completion of hire term property in good passes to him

Legal Framework
There is no exclusive legislation dealing with hire purchase transactions in India. The Hire-Purchase Act was passed in 1972. A bill was introduced in 1989 to amend some of the provisions of the Act. However, the Act has not been enforced so far. In the absence of any specific law, the hire-purchase transactions are governed by the general laws. The hire-purchase transaction has two aspects: (i) an aspect of bailment of goods which is covered by the Indian Contract Act, (ii) an element of sale when the option to purchase is exercised by the hirer which is covered by the Indian Sales of Goods Act.

Hire purchase agreement


Nature of agreement Delivery of equipment Location Inspection Hire charges Repairs Alteration Termination Risk Registration and fees Schedule of hire charges and equipments

TAXATION ASPECTS
There are three aspects of taxation of hire-purchase deals: (i) income-tax, (ii) sales tax and, (iii) interest tax. Though the hirer is not the owner of the asset, he is entitled to claim depreciation as a deduction on the entire purchase price. He can also claim deduction on account of consideration for hire, that is, finance charge. The amount of finance charge to be deducted each year is to be spread evenly over the term of the agreement on the basis of a method chosen from amongst the alternatives: SOYD, ERI, SLM.

Assessment of Owner (hire vendor)


Income is liable to tax under Income from business profession otherwise income from other sources.

TAXATION ASPECTS
The hire-purchase transaction can be used as a tax planning device in two ways: (i) by inflating the net income (finance income interest on borrowings by the finance company) at the rear-end of the deal and (ii) by using hire-purchase as a bridge between the lessor and the lessee, that is, introduction of an intermediate financer

TAXATION ASPECTS
Hire purchase deemed to be sales, are liable to sales tax. There is no provision of refund of sales tax on unpaid installment However, hire-purchase transaction structured by finance companies (which are not hire-vendors), being essentially a financing arrangement, do not attract sales tax. Delivery Vs Transfer of property:Taxable event. The sales tax is levied on full amount payable without any deduction of hire charges The sales tax rates vary from state to state Salestax is not levied if goods are delivered in the state with single point levy system

Taxation aspects
An interest tax has to be paid on the interest earned less bad debts. The tax is treated as a tax-deductible expense for the purpose of computing the taxable income under the Income-Tax Act.

Evaluation of hire purchase


Sriram leasing and hire purchase company offers equipment costing Rs 1.5 million on hire purchase to Britannia industries .The hire purchase installments will be paid annually for five years.The hiree calculates interest at a flat rate of 18%.Britannia Industries will depreciate the asset for five years and the asset has no salvage value.The corporate tax rate is 35%.Evaluate the hire purchase offer.Britannia industries is also offered the same asset on lease.How much lease rental is the company prepared pay?

Solution
Interest for five years at 18% p.a = RS 13,50,000 Instalment = 15,00,000+13,50,000/5 = Rs 5,70,000 The amount of inteerst is distributed according the SOYD method according the amount of each year is as shown

Year 1

Interest 4,50,000

2 3 4 5

3,60,000 2,70,000 180,000 90,000

After tax cost of hire purchase


Year Purchase price avoided 15,00,000 Installment amount Principal repaid Interest Interest tax shield Depreciat Net Cash ion tax flows shield 15,00,000 0 4,50,000

5,70,000

1,20,000

3,60,000

1,57,500

1,05,000

3,07,500

5,70,000

2,10,000

2,70,000

1,26,000

1,05,000

339,000

5,70,000

3,00,000

180,000

73,500

1,05,000

3,70,500

5,70,000

3,90,000

90,000

63000

1,05,000

4,02,000

5,70,000

4,80,000

31500

1,05,000

4,33,000

After tax cost of hire purchase


15,00,000 = 3,07,500/(1+r) + 3,39,000/(1+r)2 + 3,70,500/(1+r) 3+ 4,02,000/(1+r)4 + 4,33,000/(1+r)5 R= 7% approx Lease rentals that Britannia industry is prepared to pay is as follows: 15,00,000 = t=1to 5 L(1-t)/ (I+.07)t
15,00,000 = 4.1 (.65)L= 2.6665L Lease rentals = 562,852 Thus Britannia Industries will be indifferent between lease financing and hire purchase financing if lease rentals are Rs 562,852

ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING


There was no accounting standard/guidance note for accounting treatment of hire-purchase in India. According to the current reporting practices, in the books of the hirer, the cash purchase price of the equipment is capitalised and an equal amount less down payment, if any, is recorded as a liability. The depreciation is charged on the cash purchase price in conformity with the general depreciation policy for similar assets.

ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING


The total charge for credit is spread over hire-term according to one of the alternative methods: ERI, SOYD, SLM. As far as the finance company(hiree) is concerned, the hire installment receivable is shown as a current asset under the head stock on hire and the finance income element of the installment is recorded as a current liability under the head unmatured/unearned finance charge and is spread over the accounting period (hire-term).

At the end of each accounting period ,an appropriate part of unmatured finance income should be recognized as current income for the period. The direct costs are expensed immediately/amortised over the accounting period.

Illustration 5.1 Under a hire-purchase deal structured by the Hypothetical Finance Ltd (HFL) for the Hypothetical Industries Ltd (HIL), the HFL has offered to finance the purchase of an equipment costing Rs 150 lakh. The (flat) rate of interest would be 13 per cent. The amount would have to be repaid in 48 equated monthly installments in advance. The HIL is required to make a cash down payment of 25 per cent. It uses WDV method of depreciation @ 30 per cent on similar assets.

From the foregoing information, you are required to show: (A) the allocation of total charge for credit (finance charge), on the basis of (1) effective rate of interest (ERI)/annual percentage rate (APR) method, (ii) sum-of-years-digits (SOYD) method and (iii) straight line method (SLM) of depreciation; (B) how the deal will be recorded in the financial statements (profit and loss account and balance sheet) of the hirer (HIL) in the first two years. You can make, if necessary, your assumptions.
Solution (A) (i) Allocation of Total Charge for Credit: ERI/APR Method (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Year Outstanding amount Interest content Capital content/ Annual installment at the beginning recovery (3.5625 x 12) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 112.50 23.54 19.21 42.75 2 93.29 18.52 24.22 42.75 3 69.06 12.20 30.55 42.75 4 38.52 4.22 38.53 42.75 _______________________________________________________________________________________________

Working Notes 1. Computation of ERI/APR: Total charge for credit = Rs 112.50 [Rs 150 lakh down payment (Rs 37.50 lakh)] x 0.13 x 4 = Rs 58.50 lakh Monthly installment = (Rs 112.50 lakh + Rs 58.50 lakh) / 48 = Rs 3.5625 lakh Annual installment = Rs 3.5625 lakh * 12 = Rs 42.75 lakh The ERI per annum, I, is given by equation: N/N-1 *2F = 48 /47 *2*13 =26.55% Assumption: Salvage value after 4 years, nil.

(A) (ii) Allocation of Total Charge for Credit: SOYD Method (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Year Annual installment Finance charge Capital recovery (3.5625 x 12) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 42.75 25.42 17.33 2 42.75 18.21 24.55 3 42.75 11.04 31.71 4 42.75 3.83 38.92 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Working Notes Finance charge (Rs lakh) 48 + 47 + + 37 Year 1 = ----------------------- x Rs 58.50 lakh = Rs 25.42 lakh 48 + 47 + + 1 36 + 35 + + 25 2 = ----------------------- x Rs 58.50 lakh = Rs 18.21 lakh 48 + 47 + + 1 24 + 23 + + 13 3 = ----------------------- x Rs 58.50 lakh = Rs 11.04 lakh 48 + 47 + + 1 12 + 11 + + 1 4 = ----------------------- x Rs 58.50 lakh = Rs 3.831 lakh 48 + 47 + + 1

(A) (iii) Equated Annual Finance Charge: SLM Rs 58.50 lakh 4 = Rs 14.62 lakh (B) Financial Statements Income Statement (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Expenses Year 1 Year 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Depreciation (150 x 0.30) 45.00 (105 x 0.30) 31.50 Finance charge 23.54 18.52 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Balance Sheet (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Liabilities Amount Assets Amount ____________ ___________________ Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Secured loans: Fixed assets: Hire-purchase outstanding 69.06 38.51 Equipment on hire purchase: 150.00 150.00 (due after one year) Gross Block 45.00 76.50(45+31.5) Current liabilities: Less: Accumulated depreciation _____ _____ Hire-purchase outstanding 24.22 30.50 Net block 105.00 73.50 (due within one year) _______________________________________________________________________________________________

Illustration 5.2 For the Hypothetical Finance Ltd (HFL) in Illustration 5.1, assume that the initial cost of structuring the deal is Rs 1.2 lakh. Using the effective rate of interest method for allocating finance income, show how the transaction will appear in the books of the HFL. You can make other assumptions, if necessary. Solution Allocation of Unearned Finance Income (ERI: 26.1%) (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Year Outstanding amount Installment Interest component Capital recovery at the beginning _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 112.50 42.75 23.54 19.21 2 93.29 42.75 18.52 24.22 3 69.06 42.75 12.22 30.55 4 38.52 42.75 4.22 38.53 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Record in Financial Statements: Income Statement (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Expenses Amount Income Amount ________________ ___________________________ Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Direct costs 1.2 Hire finance income 23.54 18.52 _______________________________________________________________________________________________

Balance Sheet (Rs lakh) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Liabilities Amount Assets Amount ________________ ______________ Year 1 Year 2 Year 1 Year 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Current liabilities: Current assets: Finance income/charge Stock on hire (agreement (unmatured/unearned) 34.95 16.42 value less amount/installment received) 128.24 85.49 _______________________________________________________________________________________________