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Repetitive Control Theory

Basics of Control Theory


Open Loop Versus Closed Loop
1 Open Loop systems are always stable unless plant
behavior is unstable where as closed loop system, if
properly designed can compensate for instability of plant for
example of balancing of Inverted Pendulum in closed loop.
2 Closed loop can improve transient response and
compensate for disturbances, nonlinearity of the plant etc.
3 Open loop control is simple where as closed loop is
complex. As compared with open loop, Closed loop
controller design requires additional hardware and has to
be design for a stable operation.
Goals for Design of a Controller
in a Closed Loop Control
Fast Transient Response
Zero steady state error
Should be stable over complete range of operation.
+5V -5V +15
V
-
15V
-5V
+5V
10K
10K
-5V
+5V
10K
10K
+7.5V -7.5V +15V -15V
Analog Controller Versus Digital Controllers
Implementation of analog controllers is quite old and
well known from time of steam engine in the recent
history.
Analog Controllers have wider band-width
Easy Implementations.
Hardware size is proportional to number of functions to be
implemented.
Can be adopted for linear as well as non-linear plant
behavior.
Can not log or save Data. Fault condition information
will be lost on power failure.
Advantages of Digital Controller
Some of the advantages of digital controller
over analog controller are listed below.
Flexibility : Any changes in methodology or control
parameters dont require changes in hardware.
Advanced Control : Due to implementation of digital
control, It has been possible to implement more
advanced control schemes such as Dead-Beat control,
Disturbance observer, Repetitive control, Kalman Filter,
Park and Clark transforms etc. to achieve better
performance. Can be designed for linear as well as
non-linear plant behavior.
Communication, Control & Programmability : System can
communicate with several other systems as well as with
master controller to implement factory automation. This helps
in setting control parameters remotely.
Reduction in Hardware size of controller : As one DSP chip
can be used for generating several PID loops and signal
monitoring & control hence require minimal system
Data Logging and Fault recording: In the event of fault
condition all the data and fault conditions can be
recovered for further action
Multiplexing and Multitasking : With general purpose digital
hardware, many more signals can be sampled by just adding a
multiplexers which increases the flexibility of the control and
one DSP chip can perform several operations such as
computation of control law, signal sampling, fault recording,
communication etc. Fault recording could be summarized as
one of the best facility that digital control can offer.
Disadvantages of Digital Controller
Sampling Effect : Unless sampled at higher rates can
result into aliasing of signal and there by loosing
important data
Time Delay Effect : Sampling introduces delays. Delay
introduces frequency dependent phase lag with no
change in amplitude and Phase lag reduces closed-loop
stability
Quantization and Delay Effects : A-to-D conversion
causes quantization errors. This reduces accuracy of
measurement of input/output signals. Effect of this can
be reduced by higher order A/D converters.
Effect of Time Delay on Step Response and Stability
Some of the Techniques Used In Digital Control
Dead-Beat Control
Digital PID
Observer based Sensor-less Control
Predictive Control
Repetitive Control Etc
Closed-loop system
If we assume that GH >> 1, then the overall transfer function is

if GH>>1
0
1
1
1
~ ~
+
=
GH
GH
error
Required condition for exactly tracking the input reference
is error input and feedback should be Zero
Various Techniques Used to Track the Input
Reference
If reference input is a DC
quantity then using PI loop will
give zero steady state error.
S
I
K
p
K +
-
+
10H
z
100H
z
Gain
But for AC Reference Input, PI loop gain is finite and can
not track the AC input with zero error hence to make the
controller track exactly to the given AC reference, resonant
controller scheme was introduced.
but then with the advent of microprocessors dq
transformation technique was developed. This uses
conventional PI loop and AC quantities are transformed in
to DC to get zero steady state error.
Principal of Repetitive Control
Repetitive control intends to track/reject arbitrary
periodic signals/disturbance of a fixed period
Tracking Reference Signal or rejection of Disturbance
of periodic signals and has many applications such as
- Precision electric power supply
- Hard disk/CD drives
- Robotic motions
- Steppers in IC productions
And many others
History: The First Application Example
Magnet power supply for a proton synchrotron (Nakano
and others) for Ring Magnet
Control Objective:
Control the power supply curve
(periodically) to the following
shape:
Precision requirement: order of
0.1V!
Internal Model Principle of a Control System
G
C
(S)
V
in
(s)
Plant
According to internal model principal, Laplace transform
of Vin(s) and Gc(s) should have same poles to exactly
track the reference.
Any input signal or the disturbance of periodic nature can
be represented by Fourier series as
So the minimal system Gc(s) will consist of following
poles.
Internal Model of Control System
V
error
(s)
= Gc(s)
e
-sT
[

=
+
=
1
) ........(1 ..........
)
2
0

2
n
2
(s
2
)
0
(n
1
) (
n
s
s
c
G
e
) 2 .( ..........
! 7
6
) ' (
! 5
4
) ' (
! 3
2
) ' (
1
) ' (
) ' sin(
+ + =
s s s
s
s t t t
t
t
This polynomial has roots at s = +/- 1, +/- 2, and so on.
So
) 3 .( ).........
2
3
2
'
1 )(
2
2
2
'
1 )(
2
1
2
'
1 (
) ' (
) ' sin( s s s
s
s
=
t
t
Expanding right-hand side we get
) 4 ...]...(
2
3
2
'
2
2
2
'
2
1
2
'
...... ' ...)
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
( ' ...)
2
2
1
2
1
1
( 1 [
'
) ' sin(
4 2
+ + + + + =
s s s
s s
s
s
t
t
Comparing coefficients of equn 2 & 4 we get following.
) 2 .( ..........
! 7
6
) ' (
! 5
4
) ' (
! 3
2
) ' (
1
) ' (
) ' sin(
+ + =
s s s
s
s t t t
t
t
6
2
. ..........
2
4
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
1
t
= + + + +
and similarly
120
2
........
2
5
1
.
2
4
1
2
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
2
1 t
= + +
In any given function we may replace a variable with
another variable with out loosing the equality between
R.H.S. & L.H.S.
Let be s = j*s in equn 4 then we get
) 5 .( ).........
2
3
2
1 )(
2
2
2
1 )(
2
1
2
1 (
) (
) sin( s s s
s j
s j
+ + + =
t
t
) 6 ........(
1
)
2
2
1 (
) sin(
[

=
+ =
n
n
s
s j
s j
t
t
) 7 ........(
1
)
2
2
1 (
sinh
[

=
+ =
n
n
s
s
s
t
t
) 8 .........(
1
) 1 (
1
sinh
2
2
[

=
+
=
n
n
s
s
s
t
t
) 9 .........(
) 1 (
1 1
sinh
1
2
2
[

+
=
= n
n
s
s
s t
t
) 10 .........(
) 1 (
1 1
sinh
2
1
2
2
0
[

+
=
= n
T
n
s
s
s t
e
) 11 .........(
) 1 (
1 1
sinh
2
1
2
2
0
[

+
=
= n
T
n
s
s
s
e
t
Again substitute S -> S/0 then
Then


) 12 )........( ( .
) 1 (
1 1
) sinh(
2
1
2
0
2
2
0
s
c
G
n
s
s
s
n
T
=
[

+
=
=
e
e
t
But
So


) 13 )........( (
) sinh(
2
2
s
c
G
sT
T
=
To calculate the transfer function of the above equn first we
have to substitute s = j and T = 2/ 0 and then we get

) (
0
0
2
1
e
te
e
et
j
e
j
Te

and
) sin(
)
0
2
1 (
0
0
e
te
e
te
e
et
T
j
e
j
Te
=

1,0
0
2
e
te j
e

) (
0
2
1
e
te j
e
So the minimal system for Gc(s) is given as below.
This can be derived by using following block.
V
error
(s)
= Gc(s)
or
V
error
(s)
= Gc(s)

Periodic Waveform Generator

-1
e
-sT
F(s) = f(t-T)
z
-N

Q(z
-1
)
Z
K

+
+
error
Repetitive Control Block
Thank you