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ASME SECTION IX

S.SINGARAVELU SM/ WTC

QUALIFICATION STANDARD FOR WELDING AND BRAZING PROCEDURES,WELDERS,BRAZERS, AND WELDERS AND BRAZING OPERATORS.

BOARD OF GOVERNORS

COUNCILS (5)

BOARD OF TECHNICAL GROUPS (37)

COMMITTEES & TECHNICAL DIVISIONS

SUB COMMITTEE ON WELDING (SC IX)


HONORARY MEMBER (SC IX)

SUB GROUP ON BRAZING (SC IX)

SUB GROUP ON GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (SC IX)

SUB GROUP ON MATERIALS (SC IX)

SUB GROUP ON PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS (SC IX)

SUB GROUP ON PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS ( SC IX)

CONTENTS

PART QW : WELDING PART QB : BRAZING APPENDICES: - A : Mandatory Submittal of Tech enquiry - B : Non Mandatory- Welding & Brazing Forms - D : Non Mandatory P number Listing - E : Mandatory- Permitted SWPSs -F : Mandatory -Standard units used in equations - G : Non Mandatory- Guidance for use of US Customary & SI units in ASME code.

TITLE

QW WELDING

QB BRAZING

General Requirements

ARTICLE I and Appendix I ( Rounded Indication Charts) QW- 100 ARTICLE II QW- 200

ARTICLE XI QB- 100

Procedure Requirements

ARTICLE XII QB- 200

Performance Requirements
DATA

ARTICLE III QW- 300


ARTICLE IV QW -400

ARTICLE XIII QB-300


ARTICLE XIV QB-400

Standard Welding ARTICLE V Procedure QW -500 Specifications

QW-100

QW-110 QW-120 QW-130 QW-140 QW-150 QW-160 QW-170 QW-180 QW-190

Weld orientation Test positions for Groove welds Test positions for Fillet welds Types and Purpose of test and Examinations Tension Tests Guided Bend Tests Notch- Toughness Tests Fillet- Weld Tests Other Tests and Examinations

QW-200

QW-210 Preparation of Test Coupon QW-250 Welding Variables QW-290 Temper Bead Welding

QW-300

QW-310 QW-320 QW-350 QW-360 operators QW-380

Qualification Test Coupons Retests and Renewal of Qualification Welding Variables for Welders Welding Variables for Welding Special processes

QW-400

QW-410 QW-420 QW-430 QW-440 QW-450 QW-460 QW-470 QW-490

Technique Material Groupings F-Numbers Weld Metal Chemical Composition Specimens Graphics Etching- Processes and Reagents Definitions

QW-500

QW-510 Adoption of SWPSs QW-520 Use of SWPSs Without Discrete Demonstration QW-530 Forms QW-540 Production Use of SWPSs

RESPONSIBILITY

MANUFACTURER- Operational Control PREPARTION OF WELDING & SPECIMENS , TESTING-Sub contracted. Welder/operator-Full Supervision & Control of the manufacturer.

QUALITY ASSURANCE
Degree of quality required is ascertained based on
1.

Application needs

2.
3.

Standard to be established based on service needs


Consideration of the engineering performance and safety factors.

Five Ps Assure Quality


1.

2.

Process selection.The process selected must be the most appropriate one for the job under the given conditions on all considerations. Preparation.The joint configuration must be right and compatible with the welding process.

Five Ps Assure Quality


3.Procedure.To assure uniform results, the process must be clearly spelled out in detail and followed religiously during welding. 4.Pretesting. By a full- scale mock-up test, the process,preparation,and procedures are proved to have the desired standard of quality.

Five Ps Assure Quality


5.Personnel. Personnel assigned for the job
shall be qualified to perform the assigned

tasks.

WPS Welding Procedure Specification PQR Procedure Qualification Record

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION


The welding procedure specification(WPS) is a proposal for welding a joint between two specified base metals. The purpose of a WPS is to define and document the details that are to be carried out in specific materials or parts. To fulfill the purpose efficiently, the WPS should be as concise and clear as possible with out extraneous details. From a designers point of view,the properties of the weld joint are designated as follows:

1.Yield stress 2.Ultimate tensile strength 3.Percentage elongation 4.Impact strength and so on The welding procedure specifications are written exactly to these property requirements on to relevant welding parameters comprising of mainly two factors; 1.Physical soundness (free from discontinuities) 2.Metallurgical compatibility

Physical soundness is related to the mode of deposition. In other words ,the process techniques are influenced by the skill of the welder or welding machine operator. Metallurgical compatibility is by itself dependent upon the chemical composition of the weld metal, filler metal,flux or gas,and the heat cycles the weldment undergoes during welding and post weld heat treatment. Radiography can give conclusive account of physical soundness of the weld,where as the metallurgical compatibility is revealed only by conducting a mechanical test.

Purpose of WPS & PQR


To determine that the Weldment proposed for construction is capable of having the required properties for its intended application

BASIC INFORMATION FOR THE WPS


The information needed for the WPS includes 1.Base metals to be joined 2.Typical weld joint configuration 3.Dimensions of parts to be joined 4.Welding process to be employed Of these,the first three details could be gathered from either the purchase order or the technical specification or from the applicable standards,whereas the fourth could be decided based on the manufacture experience.

WPS
A written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds in accordance with the CODE requirements. It establishes the properties of the weldment, not the skill of the welder.

PQR
Shall document what occurred during welding the test coupon and results of testing of the coupon. As a minimum, the PQR shall document all the essential variables and other specific information for each process used during welding the test coupon and the results of the required testing.

PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD

The five basic steps involved in the qualification of a welding procedure are 1.Preparation and welding of suitable samples 2.Testing of representative specimens 3.Evaluation of overall preparation, welding,testing,and end results 4.Possible changes in procedure 5.Approval

As per ASME Section IX, Test requirements for a procedure qualification record(PQR) are spelled out in QW 451, Test specimens in QW 462, Preparation of samples in QW 463. Acceptance criteria for welding are specified in QW 150,QW 160,QW 170,QW 180,and QW 190. The suggested format for the preparation of PQR is given QW 483)

WELDING VARIABLES

Depending on their influence on obtaining the desired quality weldments, the welding parameters are listed and classifieds as essential,supplementary essential,and non essential variables. These welding variables are described in article IV: Welding Data under clauses QW 400 to Qw410. For a process under consideration,only a few among them may be applicable,and these are given in sections QW252 to QW 265 for welding procedure and QW352 to QW 357 for performance qualification,and QW 361 to QW384 for welding machine operators, special processes,etc., against each welding process.

Variables

Essential Non-essential Supplementary essential

Essential variables Essential variables are those in which a change,as described in specific variables,is considered to affect mechanical properties of the weldment and shall require requalification of the WPS. Supplementary Essential variables Supplementary Essential variables are those variables which are also to be considered essential variables when other sections of the code call for notch toughness testing. Non Essential variables Non Essential variables are those in which a change,as described in specific variables, may be made in the WPS with out requalification.

Essential Variables
A change in welding condition which will affect the mechanical properties of the weldment. e.g.: A) Change in P Number B) Filler metal C) Electrode D) PWHT, etc.

Non Essential Variables


A change in welding condition which will NOT affect the mechanical properties of the weldment. e.g. : A) Change in Joint Design B) Methods of Back gouging C) Cleaning. etc.

Supplementary Essential Variables


A change in welding condition which will affect the Notch-Toughness (Impact) properties of the weldment. e.g. : A) B) C) D) Change in Heat input Uphill or Down Vertical welding Diameter of Electrode Position, etc.

Points to be considered for establishing WPS

Code of construction Detailed drawing of weldment Material Thickness Configuration Process

Contract/Customer/ Code/TPI Preheat/Postheat/ PWHT requirements Skilled welder Good welding m/c with accessories Application

WPS FLOW DIAGRAM


Release of WPS with out PQR for Procedure Qualification Test (QW 482)

Procedure Qualification Test (Welding and Testing)

Release PQR(QW483)
Revise the WPS with PQR (QW482) Issue the WPS for performance Qualification Test performance Qualification Test Issue the WPS for production Welds (QW 482) Issue the manufacturers record of welder/operator Qualification Add on to welders list PRODUCTION WELDS Selection of welder or operator Add on to renewal Log sheet Renewal of performance Qualification

Client spec+code+Drawing

Applicable ASME Code+Client Specification+drawing Welding process for all joints+essential/supplementary essential variables to be specified Select a PQR from the past data matching essential / supplementary essential variables of the job
WPS for specific job (QW 482) Release of WPS for job

Decision on welding process

Selection of PQR from past records

NO
Preparation of draft WPS (QW482)

Release of draft WPS-R0 with out PQR

Procedure Qualification Test

Welding procedure Qualification test as per QW 483

DT and NDT

DT & NDT to yield acceptable results as per QW 150,160,170,180 or 302 as acceptable

Preparation of PQR (QW 483)

Preparation of PQR based on test results + consequential qualification of the welder


Release of WPS R1 with all essential, supplementary essential and non essential variables Documentation for future use

Release of WPS Rev 1 for work

Certification of WPS by third party Inspection Agency

CONTENTS OF WPS / PQR

IX recommends formats for WPS in QW 482 wherein the following details shall be filled in: 1.Joints QW 402 2.Base metals QW 403 3.Filler metals QW 404 4.Positions QW 405 5.Preheat QW 406 6.Post weld heat treatment QW 407 7.Gas QW 408 8.Electrical characteristics QW 409 9.Techniques QW 410 The details are to be filled in depending on applicability to the particular welding process selected in the WPS.

Joints (QW-402)

Joint Design (V-groove, U-groove, Single-bevel etc.)


Backing (YES/NO) Backing Material Type (Metal/Non-fusing Metal/Nonmetallic/Others)

Base Metals (QW-403)

P. Number & Group Number Specification Type & Grade OR Chemical Analysis & Mechanical Properties
Thickness Range Groove : ______ Pipe Diameter Range Groove : ______

Fillet:______

Fillet :_______

Thickness Range
Thickness T of Test Coupon, Welded, (mm) Range of Thickness T of Base Metal, Qualified (mm) Maximum Thickness t of Deposited Weld Metal, Qualified, (mm) Min. Max. T 1.5 5 5 2T 2T 2T 2T 2t 2t 2t 2t when t < 19 2T when t > 19 38 and over 5 200 2t when t < 19 200 when t > 19

Less than 1.5 1.5 to 10, incl. Over 10, but less than 19 19 to less than 38

Filler Metals (QW-404)

AWS Classification SFA Number F. Number A. Number

Size of Filler metal Flux trade name Consumable insert Electrode flux class

Deposited Weld Metal Thickness range


Groove: ______ Fillet:______

F - NUMBERS

F-Number grouping of electrodes & welding rods is based essentially on their usability characteristics to reduce the number of tests required to qualify procedures and welders.

A - NUMBERS

Used to describe the weld deposit chemistry and is applicable only to the ferrous metals for the qualification of a welding procedure.

Position (QW-405)

Position Of Groove

Position Of Fillet
Weld Progression (UP/DOWN) Others

Preheat (QW-406)

Preheat Temperature (min.)

Interpass Temperature (max.)


Preheat Maintenance Others

PWHT (QW-407)

Temperature Range

Time Range
Others

Preheat & PWHT requirement based on Diameter, Thickness and Composition of Base Material

GAS (QW-408)
Gas

Mix %

Flow Rate

Shielding Trailing Backing

Electrical Characteristics (QW-409)

Current (AC/DC) Polarity (EP/EN) Amps & Volts W-Electrode type & size Mode of Metal Transfer (GMAW) Electrode Wire Feed Speed range

Techniques (QW-410)

Stringer or Weave Bead Orifice/Gas Cup Size Initial or Interpass Cleaning Method of Back Gauging Oscillation Contact Tip to Work Distance Multiple or Single Pass (per side) Multiple or Single Electrode Electrode Spacing Peening Others

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED TIRUCHIRAPALLI-620014 WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD

Form No. 101-403

Page 1 of 2 Procedure Qualification Record No WPS No : Welding Process : JOINTS (QW-402) : Date : Type : (Auto,Semi-Auto,Manual,Machine) BASE METALS (QW-403) Matl. Specn. : Type or Grade : P. No. : Thickness : Size : Others : POSITION (QW-405) Welding Position Weld Progression (Uphill/Downhill) Others: PREHEAT (QW-406) Preheat temp. Interpass temp. Postheat Others GAS (QW-408) Gas Shielding : ----Trailing : ----Backing : -----

Groove Design used FILLER METALS (QW-404) AWS No. (Class) : SFA : Filler Metal F No. : (Weld Metal Analysis) A No : Filler metal size : Deposited weld Metal thickness : Brand PWHT (QW-407) Temperature : Time : Others : :

: : : : : : :

Mixture(%) Flow rate ----------------------------

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (QW-409) Current : Polarity: Amps : Volt : ROL (mm/Electrode) : Tungsten Electrode type and size: Mode of metal Transfer: Others :

TECHNIQUE (QW-410) String/Weave Bead : Oscillation : Multipass or single pass : Multiple or single electrode: Travel speed : Others :

BHEL Tiruchirappalli-14

Page 2 of 2 PQR No. : TENSILE TEST (QW-150) Area Ultimate Ultimate mm Total Load Unit Stress kN N/mm

Specimen No.

Width mm

Thickness mm

Failure Location

GUIDED BEND TESTS (QW-160) Type & Fig No. QW-462.2 Result Type & Fog No. QW-462.2 Result

Specimen No

Notch Location

TOUGHNESS TEST (QW-170) Notch Test Impact Values Lateral Exp. Type Temp. Kg.m %Shear Mills CVN2mm C

Drop Weight Break No Break

FILLET WELD TEST (QW-180) Result-Satisfactory (Yes/No) : Macro Results (Yes/No) : Penetration into Parent metal (Yes/No) : OTHER TESTS Type of Test Result Report No. Deposit analysis : Others : : : :

Welders Name: Stamp No.: Test conducted by: BHEL Plant Laboratory Test No. : We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared , welded and tested in accordance with the requirements of Sec IX of the ASME code Edition 2004 and addenda July 2005. Approved by : (XXXXXXXX) XXXXXXX Prepared by : (XXXXXXXX) XXXXXXXXX

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-620014 WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION

Form No. 101 - 401

Page 1 of 2 WPS No. : Rev No. : Welding Process : Application : JOINTS (QW-402) Joint Design Backing (Yes/No) Backing Material (Type) Metal/Non fusing metal Non metallic/Others Date : Date : ---Supporting PQR No: Type : (Auto/Semi-Auto/Manual/Machine)

:. : :

BASE METAL (QW-403) P.No.: Group No.: Spec. Type & Grade : Chem. Analysis & Mech. Prop. : Thickness Range :Groove : Pipe Diameter Range :Groove : Others :

TO . . Fillet : Fillet :

P.No.:

Group No.:

FILLER METALS (QW-404) AWS No.(Class) : Specn. No.(SFA) : F.No. : A.No. : Deposited weld metal thickness range :Groove : Fillet : POSITION (QW-405) Position of Groove : Position of Fillet : Weld Progression : (Up/Down)

Size of filler metal Flux trade Name Consumable insert Electrode flux class

: : : :

PREHEAT (QW-406) Preheat Temp. (min) : Inter pass Temp. (max) : Post heat : Others :

BHEL Tiruchirappalli 14 PWHT(QW-407) Temp. Range : Time Range : Others : ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ( QW 409 ) Current (AC/DC) : See table Amps (Range) : See table Tungsten Electrode type and size : . Mode of Metal transfer for (GMAW) : . Electrode wire feed speed range : . Pulsing current (GTAW) : . TECHNIQUES (QW-410) String or Weave Bead Orifice or Gas cup size Initial and Interpass Cleaning Method of Back Gouging Oscillation Contact tube to work distance Multiple or single pass (per side) Multiple or single Electrode Electrode spacing Peening Others Filler Weld Layer
Root & Capping Others -- do --

Page 2 of 2 WPS No : Rev : GAS ( QW - 408) Gases Shielding : Trailing : Backing :

Mix % -------

flow Rt -------

Polarity : See table Volts : See table

: : : : : : : : : : Dia. mm.

Brushing / Chipping / Grinding. .

. Nil Current Type Amps. Voltage Range Travel speed Range Others (Hot wire,Torch angle,ROL.)

Process

Class

Approved by : (xxxxxxxxx) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Prepared by : (xxxxxxxxxxxx) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Weld Orientation
Plate groove positions 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G Pipe groove positions 1G, 2G, 5G, 6G Plate fillet positions 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F Pipe fillet positions 1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F, 5F 1F - 0 to 30 2F - +15 -10 wrt 45 4F - 0 - 125 3F - 125 - 235

GMAW in different positions


1F 2F Flat

Fillet welding of plate

Horizontal

3F

Vertical

4F

overhead

Base Metal Classification


P nos depend on composition, weldability & mechanical properties. Group nos classify metals within P nos for procedure qualification where notch toughness requirements are specified. But base metals can not be indiscriminately substituted.

Base Metal P Numbers


P1 - P11 P21 - P25 P31 - P35 P41 - P47 P51 - P53 P61 - P62 Steel Al alloys Cu alloys Ni alloys Ti alloys Zr alloys

Base Metal P Numbers


Examples of P nos
P1
P3 P4 P5A P6 P7 P8 P9A P10A P11

C Steel
1/2 Mo steels 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steels 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels 13 Cr steel 17 Cr steel ASS 2 1/2 Ni steels Mn - 1/2 Ni - V steels 9 Ni steels

Base Metal P Numbers


Examples of P nos
P1
P3 P4 P5A P6 P7 P8 P9A P10A P11

C Steel
1/2 Mo steels 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steels 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels 13 Cr steel 17 Cr steel ASS 2 1/2 Ni steels Mn - 1/2 Ni - V steels 9 Ni steels

Base Metal for WPS


Test Coupon Base Metal qualified

Px - Px Px Px - Py Px - Py P3 - P3 P3 ( P3 / P1) P4 - P4 P4 ( P4 / P3 / P1) P5A - P5A P5A ( P5A / P4 / P3 / P1) P5A (P4 / P3 / P1) P5A (P4 / P3 / P1) P4 (P3 / P1) P4 (P3 / P1)

BM used for procedure qualification coupon One metal from a P-No. to any metal from the same P-No. One metal from a P-No. to any metal from the any other P-No.

Base Metals Qualified Any metal assigned that P or S No. Any metal assigned the 1st P or S No. to any metal assigned the 2nd P or S No.

One metal from P-No. 3 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 3 metal to any metal 3 assigned P or S No. 3 or 1 One metal from P-No. 4 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 4 metal to any metal 4 assigned P or S No. 4, 3 or 1

One metal from P-No. 5A to any metal from PNo. 5A


One metal from P-No. 5A to any metal from PNo. 4, 3 or 1

Any P or S No. 5A metal to any metal assigned P or S No. 5A, 4, 3 or 1


Any P or S No. 5A metal to any metal assigned P or S No. 4, 3 or 1

One metal from P-No. 4 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 4 metal to any metal 3 or 1 assigned P or S No. 3 or 1 Any unassigned metal to the same unassigned metal Any unassigned metal to any P-No. metal Any unassigned metal to any other unassigned metal The unassigned metal to itself The unassigned metal to any metal assigned to the same P or S No. as the qualified metal The first unassigned metal to the second unassigned metal

S - Number
They are mostly ASTM specification materials that have not been adopted within Section II, Part D but that are referred within Code Cases and the ASME B31 Code.

e.g. A 588 Gr A
A 576 G10100

S-No. 3 Group No. 1 S-No. 1 Group No. 1

SFA NO. 5.01 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32

DESCRIPTION Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxy Fuel Gas Welding Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes Filler Metal for Brazing and Braze Welding Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods Bare Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting Solid Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Rods and Electrodes Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Carbon steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Composite Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes SS Electrodes for FCAW and SS Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electro-slag Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electro-gas Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Consumable Inserts Fluxes and Brazing and Braze Welding Welding Shielding Gases

F-Number

Description

1 2
3 4

CS, LAS and certain SS (EXX2X) electrodes CS titania-coated (EXX12, EXX13, EXX14 & EXX19) electrodes CS cellulose-coated (EXX10 & EXX11) electrodes
CS & LAS all position, low hydrogen (EXX15, EXX16, EXX18 & EXX48) electrodes & martensitic, ferritic & ppt. hardening SS all position (EXX15, EXX16 & EXX17) electrodes Austenitic and duplex SS all-position (EXX15, EXX16 & EXX17) electrodes Solid, Flux-cored & composite ferrous electrodes & rods ---

5 6 ---

Filler Metal F Numbers


Based on usability characteristics i.e ability of welders to make satisfactory welds with given filler F1 E XX20 F2 E XX12, E XX13 F3 E XX10, E XX11 F4 E XX18 F5 ASS, Duplex SS F6 Bare rods

F - NUMBERS (QW - 432)


Steel and Steel Alloys
F-No. ASME Classification AWS Classification 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.4 SFA-5.4 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 EXX20 EXX22 EXX24 EXX27 EXX28 EXXX(X)-25 EXXX(X)-26 EXX20-X EXX27-X EXX12 EXX13 EXX14 EXX19 E(X)XX13-X EXX10 EXX11 E(X)XX10-X E(X)XX11-X EXX15 EXX16 EXX18 EXX18M EXX48
F-No. ASME Classification 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 AWS Classification EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 E(X)XX15-X E(X)XX16-X E(X)XX18-X E(X)XX18M E(X)XX18M1 EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications INMs-X IN5XX IN3XX(X)

5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex 5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex 5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 SFA-5.2 SFA-5.9 SFA-5.17 SFA-5.18 SFA-5.20 SFA-5.22 SFA-5.23 SFA-5.25 SFA-5.26 SFA-5.28 SFA-5.29 SFA-5.30 SFA-5.30 SFA-5.30

ANo. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Weld Metal Analysis, % [Single values shown are maximum ] Types of Weld Deposit C Mild Steel Carbon-Molybdenum Chrome (0.4% to 2%)Molybdenum Chrome (2% to 6%)Molybdenum Chrome (6% to 10.5%)Molybdenum Chrome-Martensitic Chrome-Ferritic Chromium-Nickel Chromium-Nickel Nickel to 4% Manganese-Molybdenum Nickel-ChromeMolybdenum 0.20 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.17 0.15 Cr 0.50 0.40-2.00 2.00-6.00 6.00-10.50 11.00-15.00 11.00-30.00 14.50-30.00 19.00-30.00 1.50 Mo 0.40-0.65 0.40-0.65 0.40-1.50 0.40-1.50 0.70 1.00 4.00 6.00 0.55 0.25-0.75 0.25-0.80 Ni 7.50-15.00 15.00-37.00 0.80-4.00 0.85 1.25-2.80 Mn 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.20 2.00 1.00 2.50 2.50 1.70 1.25-2.25 0.75-2.25 Si 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Selection of Filler Metal


Tube Material P1/Gr1,2 P3/Gr1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-A1 P4/Gr1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-A1 P5A/Gr1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-1 ER80S-G (RT Mo) E7018-A1 P5B/Gr2 P8/Gr1,2 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 ER80S-G P1/Gr1,2 (RT Mo) E7018-1 P3/Gr1

P4/Gr1

ER80S-G ER80S-G ER80S-G ERNiCr-3 (1Cr Mo) (1Cr Mo) (1Cr Mo) ENiCrFe-3 E8018-B2 E8018-B2 E8018-B2 ER90S-G ER90S-G ERNiCr-3 (2Cr1Mo) (2Cr1Mo) ENiCrFe-3 E9018-B3 E9018-B3 ER90S-B9 E9018-B9 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3

P5A/Gr1

P5B/Gr2

Filler metals suitable for welding joints between dissimilar austenitic stainless steels
Base Metal 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316,316H 316L 308,316 317 321,321H 347,347H,348,348H 308

304,304H,305 308L 308L 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316,316H 316L 317 321,321H 308L 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 309 309,310 309,310 309,310 309S,310S 308,316 308,316 316

308,316, 317 308

308L,316L 308,316, 317 308L,347 308L,347 308,316 309,316 308,316, 317 308 309,316 309,347 309,347 308,310 308,310 308,316 316L 308,317 308,347 309,347 309,347 308,310 308,310 308,316, 347 316L,347 308,317, 347 308L,347

309S,316L 310,317 310,316 316 316 317 316,317 317

Procedure Qualification
When two or more procedures (diff processes or other essential variables) are used in one joint, use table for determining the applicable range of thickness qualified. Carry out tension test for each weld metal. One or more processes from a combination may be deleted provided remaining metal meets the requirements.

Thickness Range
Thickness T of Test Coupon, Welded, (mm) Range of Thickness T of Base Metal, Qualified (mm) Maximum Thickness t of Deposited Weld Metal, Qualified, (mm) Min. Max. T 1.5 5 5 2T 2T 2T 2T 2t 2t 2t 2t when t < 19 2T when t > 19 38 and over 5 200 2t when t < 19 200 when t > 19

Less than 1.5 1.5 to 10, incl. Over 10, but less than 19 19 to less than 38

WPS for SMAW Essential variables

Change in qualified Thickness Change in P no Change in F no of filler metal Change in A no of filler metal Change in deposited metal thickness Decrease of more than 100 F in preheat Change in PWHT

WPS for SMAW Supplementary Essential variables Change in Group no of base metal Change in T limits for impact test Change in dia of filler metal > 1/4 Change in AWS class of filler metal Change in welding position Increase of more than 100 F in preheat Change in PWHT Time and temp range Change in current or polarity

WPS for SMAW Non Essential variables Change in Groove design, backing, root spacing, retainers etc Change in dia of filler metal Change in AWS class of filler metal Change in welding position Change in preheat maintenance Change in current or polarity Change in string/weave, cleaning, back gouging, peening, manual/automatic

WPS for GTAW Essential variables

Change in qualified Thickness Change in P no Change in F no & A no of filler metal Addition/deletion of filler metal Change in size of filler metal, product form Decrease of more than 100 F in preheat Change in PWHT

WPS for GTAW

Essential variables (cond)


Change in single, mixture % gas Deletion of backing gas Change in shielding / trailing gas Change in Closed to out chamber technique

WPS for GTAW Supplementary Essential variables Change in Group no of base metal Change in T limits Change in AWS class of filler metal Change in welding position Increase of more than 100 F in preheat Change in PWHT Time and temp range Change in current/polarity, incr. in heat input Change in multi to single pass, electrodes

WELDING PERFORMANCE

QUALIFICATION 1. Welder,welding operator,and tack welder qualification tests determine the ability of those tested to produce acceptably sounds welds with processes, materials,and procedures called for in the test. 2. The qualification tests are not intended to be used as a guide for welding during actual construction,but rather to assess whether an individual normally will or can do in production.

QUALIFICATION

Welding variables applicable for performance in QW 350 and QW 360. Allowable visual,mechanical,and radiographic examination requirements are described in QW 304 and QW 305. Retests and renewal of qualifications are given in QW 320. Suggested format for performance qualification tests is given in QW 484

Welders Performance Qualification

The performance qualification tests are intended to determine the ability of welders to make sound welds A welder is qualified by radiography of a test coupon or by radiography of initial production welding or by bend tests taken from a test coupon

Performance Qualification
The basic criterion for welders qualification is to determine the welders ability to deposit sound weld metal. The purpose of performance qualification test is to determine the welding operators mechanical ability to operate the welding equipment.

Release of WPS Latest Revision

Applicable WPS with PQR to be released for the conduct of welders list

Preparation Welder / Operator Qualification Tests

Preparation of specimen for the test using materials of compatible quality

Welder / Operator Qualification test

NDT or DT as per ASME Section IX

NDT & DT as per QW 160, 302 to yield satisfactory results

Release of WPQ record

Preparation of WPQ Records as per QW 484

Add to list of welder / operators

Add to Renewal test Register

Renewal test as required in QW 322

Welders Performance Qualification

Weld

Plate & pipe >24OD

Pipe of OD 2 7/8 - 24

Fillet

Plate Plate Plate Plate

1F 2F 3F 4F

F F, H F, H, V F, H, O

Welders Performance Qualification Weld Plate & pipe Pipe of ODFillet >24OD Plate 1G Plate 2G Plate 3G Plate 4G F F, H F, V F, O 2 7/8 - 24 F F, H F F F F, H F, H, V F, H, O

Welders Performance Qualification

Weld

Plate & pipe >24OD

Pipe of OD 2 7/8 - 24

Fillet

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe

1G 2G 5G 6G 2G + 5G

F F, H F, V, O All All

F F, H F, V, O All All

F F, H All All All

Welders Performance Qualification Weld Plate & pipe >24OD Pipe of OD 2 7/8 - 24 Fillet

Pipe 1F Pipe 2F Pipe 2FR Pipe 4F Pipe 5F

F F, H F, H F, H, O All

Welders Performance Qualification Thk 3/8 >3/8 >1/2 Max tk of dep. Metal Test 2t 1FB, 1RB 2t 1FB, 1RB Max to be welded 2SB Range of OD qualified Size welded - unlimitd 1 - unlimited 2 7/8 - unlimited

OD of test coupon <1 1 - 2 7/8 > 2 7/8

Welders Performance Qualification Test coupon More than 2 welders different procedure can do a single test coupon. Failure then both are failed. Retest - 2 consecutive test coupons to pass Renewal if no welding for 6 months. Single test coupon plate/pipe, any thickness, material, position. If passed then complete previous qualification is restored.

Welders Performance Qualification Variables for SMAW Removal of backing Change in Pipe diameter Change in P number Change in F Number Change in thickness of weld deposit Change in welding position

Welders Performance Qualification


Variables for GTAW Removal of backing Change in Pipe diameter Addition / deletion of filler metal Addition / deletion of insert Change in P number Change in F Number Change in solid filler to flux cored filler metal Change in thickness of weld deposit Change in welding position Removal of inert gas backing Change in current or polarity

Welders Performance Qualification


Welded Without Backing Fx With Backing F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Qualified Fx

F1 F2, F3, F4, F5,

F1 F2, F1 F3, F2, F1 F1

Welders Performance Qualification


F1 F1 F2 F2 F3 F3 F4 F4 F5 F5 F No qualification with backing with backing F1 with backing without backing F1 with & without backing with backing F1 & F2 with backing without backing F2 with & without backing, F1 with backing with backing F1, F2 & F3 with backing without backing F3 with & without backing, F1, F2 with backing with backing F1, F2, F3 & F4 with backing without backing F4 with & without backing, F1, F2, F3 with backing with backing F1 & F5 with backing without backing F5 with & without backing, F1 with backing

Tests for Qualification


Tension test Minimum values for specified tensile strength For dissimilar joint, lesser of the two values If break outside weld, if tensile st. value not < 5% of the base metal No open discontinuity > 1/8 in any direction In accordance with the section

Bend test

Impact test

Tests for Qualification


Radiography No crack or LOP or LOF Any elongated slag >1/8 for t <3/8 1/3 t for t 3/8 - 2 1/4 3/4 for t>2 1/4 Any group of slag in a line with aggregate length t in 12 t unless separated by 6L Max permissible dimension for rounded indication smaller of 20% of t or 1/8 For thickness<1/8, max no of accepted rounded indication 12 in 6 length For thickness>1/8, charts for max types of rounded indication

acceptable

Tests for Initial Qualification


Theoretical examination Groove welds in plate - single or double vee 299 x 381 x 16 mm min size in flat, horizontal or vertical. Vertical or horizontal position also qualifies for all Fillet weld in plate - 16 x 381 mm min in flat, horizontal, vertical or overhead. Horizontal or vertical also qualifies for flat. Vertical position also qualifies for flat, horizontal or vertical.

Tests for Initial Qualification


Pipe welding in the following positions (i) Horizontally rolled (ii) Horizontal turned (iii) Vertical fixed (iv) Horizontal fixed. Qualification in (ii) or (iii) also qualifies (i). Qualification in (iv) also qualifies (i) or (ii).

Branch to pipe welding Pipe size 127 OD x 10 tk. Tube 89 OD x 6 tk.


Tube welding with axis vertical and tubes of same size fixed in adjoining positions.

No theoretical examination Plate welding 152 length x 229 x 16 tk in 45 deg position. Weld to be done from underside. Pipe welding with axis of pipe horizontal. Branch to pipe as earlier Tube welding axis vertical and tubes of same size in adjoining position. Regular production weld to the satisfaction of competent authority may be accepted as alternative to the above tests

Tests for Requalification

Examination of the weld for initial Qualification


PLATE QUALIFICATION (Fillet weld) Specimen shall not fracture during load application If fractures, no evidence of cracks / ICP / sum of inclusions and gas pockets < 51 mm Macro examination shall show complete fusion concavity / convexity < 1.6 mm difference in leg length < 1.6 mm

QUESTIONS PLEASE