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Reference

Material in this lecture is taken from chapters 1-3 of Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach (2nd ed.), Norman E. Fenton and Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, 1997, PWS Publishing Company, Boston, MA, ISBN 0534954251

2

Overview

1. Measurement what is it and why do we do it? 2. Measurement basics 3. A goal-based software measurement framework

1. Measurement in Everyday Life 2. Measurement in Software Engineering 3. The Scope of Software Metrics

Measurement governs many aspects of everyday life:

Economic indicators determine prices, pay raises Medical system measurements enable diagnosis of specific illnesses Measurements in atmospheric systems are the basis of weather prediction

5

How do we use measurement in our lives?

In a shop, price is a measure of the value of an item, and we calculate the bill to make sure we get the correct change. Height and size measurements ensure clothing will fit correctly. When traveling, we calculate distance, choose a route, measure speed, and predict when well arrive

Understand our world Interact with our surroundings Improve our lives

What is Measurement?

Common thread in previous examples some aspect of a thing is assigned a descriptor that allows us to compare it with other things. More formally the process by which

Numbers or symbols are assigned to attributes of entities in the real world in such a way as to describe them. According to clearly defined rules.

7

Definition of measurement process is far from clear cut. To understand measurement, must ask questions that are difficult to answer:

In a room with blue walls, is blue a measure of the color of the room? A persons height is a commonly understood attribute that can be easily measured. What about other attributes of people, such as intelligence? Some measurements (e.g., intelligence, wine quality) may have wide error margins is this a reason to reject them? How do we decide which error margins are acceptable and which are not? When is a measurement scale acceptable for the purpose to which it is put (e.g., is it appropriate to measure a persons height in kilometers)?

Material in next section (Measurement Basics) will allow us to answer these questions.

8

Making Things Measurable

What is not measurable, make measurable (Galileo Galilei)

One aim of science is to find ways of measuring attributes of things were interested in. Measurement makes concepts more visible, therefore more understandable and controllable. Attributes previously thought to be unmeasurable now form basis for decisions affecting our lives (e.g., air quality, inflation index).

Act of proposing a particular measure can open discussion that will lead to greater understanding Making new measurement may requiring modifying environment or practices (e.g., using a new tool, adding a step in a process)

9

Measurement in Software Engineering

In many instances, measurement is considered a luxury. For many projects:

Measurable targets are not set (e.g., products are supposed to be user-friendly, reliable, and maintainable, but we dont quantify what that means). The component costs of projects are not quantified or understood. Product quality is not quantified. Too much reliance on anecdotal evidence (e.g., try our product and youll improve your productivity by 50%!). Most of the time, theres no measurable basis for the claims.

10

Measurement in Software Engineering (contd)

When measurements are made, they tend to be:

Incomplete Inconsistent Infrequent

How experiments were designed What was measured and how Realistic error margins Without this information, cant decide whether to apply results to a development effort, and cant do an objective study to repeat the measurements.

11

Software Measurement Objectives

Assessing status

Projects Products for a specific project or projects Processes Resources

Identifying trends

Need to be able to differentiate between a healthy project and one thats in trouble

Measurements should indicate the appropriate corrective action, if any is required.

12

Types of information required to understand, control, and improve projects:

Managers

What does the process cost? How productive is the staff? How good is the code? Will the customer/user be satisfied? How can we improve? Are the requirements testable? Have all the faults been found? Have the product or process goals been met? What will happen in the future?

13

Engineers

The Scope of Software Metrics

Cost and effort estimation Productivity measures and models Data collection Quality models and measures Reliability models Performance evaluation and models Structural and complexity metrics Capability-maturity assessment Management by metrics Evaluation of methods and tools

14

The Scope of Software Metrics some details

Cost and effort estimation

Motivation accurately predict costs early in the development life cycle. Numerous empirical cost models have been developed

COCOMO, COCOMO 2 Putnams model (see Pressman Ch 3) ...

15

The Scope of Software Metrics some details

Productivity models and measures

Estimate staff productivity to determine how much specified changes will cost Naive measure size divided by effort. Doesnt take into account things like defects, functionality, reliability. More comprehensive models have been developed next slide illustrates a possible model.

16

The Scope of Software Metrics some details

Possible productivity model

Productivity

Value Personnel Quality Quantity Time Reliability Defects Size Functionality Money HW

Cost

Resources

Problem difficulty 17

SW

The Scope of Software Metrics some details

Software quality model

Use Factor Usability Product Operation Reliability Criteria

Communicativeness Accuracy Consistency Device Efficiency Accessibility

Efficiency

Reusability

Metrics

Completeness Structuredness Conciseness

Product Revision

Device Independence

Legibility Self-descriptiveness Traceability

18

Overview

1. Measurement what is it and why do we do it? 2. Measurement basics 3. A goal-based software measurement framework

19

Measurement Basics

1. Overview 2. The representational theory of measurement 3. Measurement and models 4. Measurement scales and scale types 5. Meaningfulness in measurement

20

Measurement Basics

Overview

Understanding of software attributes not as deep as understanding of non-software entities (e.g., length, weight, temperature) Questions that are relatively easy to answer for non-software entities are difficult for software:

How much must we know about an attribute before its reasonable to consider measuring (e.g., program complexity)? How do we know if weve really measured the attribute we want to measure? Does a count of the number of defects found in a system measure its quality, or does it measure something else? Using measurement, what meaningful statements can we make about an attribute and the entities that possess it (e.g., can we talk about doubling a designs quality)? What meaning operations can we perform on measures (e.g., can we compute the average productivity of a group of developers, or the average quality of a set of modules)?

21

Measurement Basics

The representational theory of measurement

Developed as a classical discipline from the physical sciences Provides rules for:

Making consistent measurements Interpreting data resulting from measurement

Representational theory of measurement formalizes intuition about the way the world works.

22

Measurement Basics

Empirical relations

Data obtained as measures should represent attributes of observed entities Manipulating data should preserve observed relationships Example Taller than

Binary relation defined on the set of pairs of people. Either

A is taller than B, or B is taller than A

Empirical relations are not restricted to binary relations can be unary (e.g., A is tall), ternary (A sitting on Bs shoulders is taller than C), etc.

23

Measurement Basics

Empirical relations (contd)

Empirical relations are mappings from the empirical, real world to a formal mathematical world.

Height maps a set of people to the set of real numbers Greater functionality (from survey results)

A A B C D B C D 80% 10% 80% 5% 50% 96% x has greater functionality than y if (x,y) > 60%. Relation is (C,A), (C,B), (C,D), (A,B), (A,D). Surveys can help gain preliminary understanding of relationships.

24

20% -

Measurement Basics

Empirical relations (contd)

Definitions

Measurement a mapping from the empirical world to the formal, relational world. Measure number or symbol assigned to an entity by the mapping in order to characterize an attribute.

25

Measurement Basics

Rules of Mapping

Measures must specify domain and range as well as the rule for performing the mapping

Domain real world is domain of mapping that defines the measurement Range the mathematical world into which real-world attributes are mapped

Examples

Measuring height:

Is height measured in inches, centimeters, feet? Are people measured sitting or standing? Are shoes allowed to be worn during the measurement?

Are lines of code reused without change counted? Are non-executable lines counted? Declarations Compiler Directives Comments Blank lines

26

Measurement Basics

The representation condition

Behavior of measures in number system needs to be the same as corresponding elements in the real world. Formally, a measurement mapping M must map entities into numbers and empirical relations into numerical relations in such a way that:

Empirical relations preserve numerical relations Empirical relations are preserved by numerical relations

27

Measurement Basics

The representation condition example

Taller than:

A is taller than B iff M(A) > M(B), where M is a mapping from the empirical world to the real numbers.

Whenever Joe is taller than Frank, then M(Joe) must be a bigger number than M(Frank) Jane can be mapped to a bigger number than John only if Jane is taller than John.

28

Measurement Basics

The representation condition example 2

Software failures criticality Three types of failures examined:

Delayed response Incorrect output Data loss At this point, we have a relation system consisting of 3 unary relations

R1 for delayed response R2 for incorrect output R3 for data loss

With this information, we cant yet judge the relative criticality of these types of failures.

29

Measurement Basics

The representation condition example 2 (contd)

We can find a representation in the set of real numbers by choosing three distinct numbers:

M(delayed response) = 6 M(incorrect output)=4 M(data loss)=50

Further investigation of criticality reveals that data loss is more critical than incorrect output, which in turn is more critical than a delayed response. To develop a real-number representation for this enriched relation, we must be more careful in assigning numbers. Using > to mean more critical than, data-loss failures must be mapped to a higher number than incorrect output failures, which in turn must mapped to a higher number than delayed responses.

30

Measurement Basics

The representation condition (contd)

There may be many different measures for a given attribute (e.g., in., cm., furlongs).

Any measure satisfying the representation condition is a valid measurement

The richer the empirical relation system, the fewer the valid valid measures

Relational systems are rich if they have a large number of relations that can be defined. As the number of empirical relations increases, so does the number of conditions a measurement mapping must satisfy in its representation condition.

31

Measurement Basics

Measurement and models

Model an abstraction of reality allowing us to:

Strip away unnecessary detail View an entity or concept from a particular perspective

Representation condition requires every measure to be associated with a model of how the measure maps real world entities and attributes to elements of a numerical system. These models are essential in:

Understanding how measure is derived Interpreting behavior of numerical elements when we return to the real world.

32

Measurement Basics

Defining Attributes

Always a temptation to focus too much on formal, mathematical system, rather than on empirical system. Before we set out to measure something (e.g., program complexity), we need to:

Identify a set of characteristics of the thing were trying to measure A model that associates the characteristics

We can then define measures for each characteristic, and use the representation condition to help understand the relationships.

33

Measurement Basics

Direct and Indirect Measurement

Direct measure relates an attribute to a number or symbol without reference to no other object or attribute (e.g., height). Indirect measure

Used when an attribute must be measured by combining several of its aspects (e.g., density) Requires a model of how measures are related to each other

34

Measurement Basics

Direct and Indirect Measures for Software examples

Direct

Length or source code (lines of code) Duration of testing process Number of defects discovered during test Time a developer spends on a project

Indirect

Programmer productivity (LOC/workmonths of effort) Module defect density (number of defects/module size) Defect detection efficiency (# defects detected/total defects) Requirements stability (initial # requirements/total # requirements) Test effectiveness ratio (number of items covered/total number of items) System spoilage (effort spent fixing faults/total project effort)

35

Measurement Basics

Measurement for prediction

So far weve talked about measuring some entity that already exists

Useful for assessing current situation or understanding what has happened in the past

In many cases, we want to predict an attribute of an entity that doesnt yet exist (e.g., project cost, reliability of fielded system).

Requires model relating measurement that can be taken now to attributes that will be predicted

Empirical cost models Software reliability models

Model is not sufficient by itself to perform required prediction. Need a prediction system including:

A model relating the measurements to the desired attribute A procedure to model parameters Procedures for interpreting model results

36

Measurement Basics

Measurement for prediction

Accurate predictive measurement is always based on measurement in the assessment sense Everyone wants to predict key determinants of success (e.g., effort to build a new system, operational reliability), but... There are no magic models. They all depend on:

High-quality measurements of past projects High-quality measurements of current project

37

Measurement Basics

Measurement scales and scale types

A measurement scale is our mapping, M, together with the empirical and numerical relation systems.

If the relation systems (domain and range) are obvious from context, sometimes M alone is referred to as the scale.

How do we determine when one numerical relation system is preferable to another? How do we know if a particular empirical relation system has a representation in a given numerical relation system? What do we do when we have several different possible representations (and hence many scales) in the same numerical relation system?

38

Measurement Basics

Measurement scales and scale types (contd)

Three questions:

How do we determine when one numerical relation system is preferable to another?

Answer: We can map the scale to a symbolic relational system. In practice, this can be unwieldy (symbolic vs. numerical manipulation). We try to use real numbers whenever possible.

How do we know if a particular empirical relation system has a representation in a given numerical relation system?

Answer: This is known as the representation problem, one of the basic problems of measurement theory. This is a solved problem for various types of relation systems characterized by specific axioms. Discussion is beyond the scope of this course, but solutions can be found in texts on measurement theory.

What do we do when we have several different possible representations (and hence many scales) in the same numerical relation system?

Answer: This is the uniqueness problem. Following slides address this question.

39

Measurement Basics

Measurement scale types

Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Absolute

One relational system is richer than another if all relationships in the second system are contained in the first.

Scale types above are listed in order of increasing richness.

40

Measurement Basics

Measurement scale types (contd) Why is this important?

If we have a satisfactory measure for an attribute with respect to an empirical relation system, we want to know what other measures exist that are acceptable. Mapping from one acceptable measure to another is called an admissible transformation.

Example when considering length, admissible transformations are of the form M=aM. Transformations of the form M=b+aM, or M=aMb are not acceptable when b <> 0.

The more restrictive the class of admissible transformations, the most sophisticated the measurement scale.

41

Measurement Basics

Nominal scale

Most primitive form of measurement define classes or categories, and place each category in a particular class or category Two major characteristics

Empirical relation consists only of different classes no notion of ordering Any distinct number or symbolic representation is an acceptable measure no notion of magnitude associated with numbers or symbols.

Any two mappings, M and M, will be related to each other in that M can be obtained from M by a one-to-one mapping Example software faults can belong to one of the following classes, according to where they were first introduced during development:

Specification Design Code

42

Measurement Basics

Measurement types and scale

Ordinal scale

Augments nominal scale with ordering information. Three major characteristics

Empirical relation system consists of classes that are ordered with respect to the attribute Any mapping preserving the ordering (i.e., a monotonic function) is acceptable Numbers represent ranking only, so arithmetic operations have no meaning

Set of admissible transformations is set of all monotonic mappings Example software complexity two valid measures

Value 1 Trivial Meaning Value Meaning

2

4 6 9 12

Trivial

Simple Moderate Complex Incomprehensible

2

3 4 5

Simple

Moderate Complex Incomprehensible

43

Interval scale

Measurement Basics

Captures information about size of intervals that separate classes. Three characteristics Preserves order Preserves differences, but not ratios Addition and subtraction are acceptable, but not multiplication and division Class of admissible transformations is the set of affine transformations: M=aM+b, where a>0. Example software complexity suppose the difference in complexity between a trivial and a simple system is the same as that between a simple and a moderate system. Where this equal step applies to each class, we have an attribute measurable on an interval scale.

Meaning Trivial Simple Moderate Complex 0 2 4 Value Meaning Trivial Simple Moderate Value 1.1 2.2 3.3 Meaning Trivial Simple Moderate

Value 1 2 3 4

6

8

Complex

Incomprehensible

4.4

5.5

Complex

Incomprehensible

Incomprehensible

44

Measurement Basics

Measurement type and scale

Ratio scale

Most useful scale, common in physical sciences captures information about ratios 4 characteristics

Preserves ordering, size of intervals between entities, and ratios between entities There is a zero element, representing total lack of the attribute Measurement mapping must start at 0 and increase at equal intervals (units) All arithmetic can be meaningfully applied to classes in the range of the mapping.

Acceptable transformations are ratio transformations M=aM, where a is a scalar. Example program length can be measured by lines of code, number of characters, etc. Number of characters may be obtained by multiplying the number of lines by the average number of characters per line.

45

Measurement Basics

Measurement type and scale

Absolute scale

Most restrictive in terms of admissible transformations For any two measures, M and M, theres only one admissible transformation (identity transformation), since theres only one way to make the measurement. 4 characteristics

Measurement is made simply by counting the number of elements in the entity set. Attribute always takes the form of number of occurrences of x in the entity Only one possible measurement mapping, namely the actual count All arithmetic analysis of the resulting count is meaningful.

46

Measurement Basics

Measurement type and scale - summary

Scale type Admissible transformations 1-1 mapping Examples

Nominal

Labeling, classifying entities Preference, hardness, air quality, intelligence tests (raw scores) Relative time, temperature (Fahrenheit, Celsius), intelligence tests (standardized scores) Time interval, length, temperature (Kelvin) Counting entities 47

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

M=aM, a> 0

Absolute

M=M

Measurement Basics

Meaningfulness in measurement

After making measurements, key question is can we deduce meaningful statements about entities being measured? Harder to answer than it first appears consider these statements:

1. The number of errors discovered during the integration testing of a program X was at least 100 2. The cost of fixing each error in program X is at least 100 3. A semantic error takes twice as long to fix as a syntactic error 4. A semantic error is twice as complex as a syntactic error

48

Measurement Basics

Meaningfulness in measurement (contd)

First statement seems to make sense Second statement doesnt make sense number of errors may be specified without reference to a particular scale, but cost to fix them must be Statement 3 seems sensible the ratio of time taken is the same, whether time is measured in second, hours, or fortnights Statement 4 does not appear to be meaningful and requires clarification:

If complexity means time to understand the error, than it makes sense Other definitions of complexity may not admit measurement on a ratio scale (e.g. examples in previous slides) in which case statement 4 is meaningless.

49

Measurement Basics

Meaningfulness in measurement

Definition: a statement involving measurement is meaningful if its truth value is invariant of transformations of allowable scales.

50

Measurement Basics

Meaningfulness in measurement examples

John is twice as tall as Fred

Implies measures are at least on the ratio scale. Its meaningful because no matter what transformation we use (and all we have is ratio transformations), the truth or falsity of the statement remains constant.

Implies a ratio scale, but is not meaningful. We measure in F and C. If Tokyo is 40 C and London is 20 C, then the statement is true, but if Tokyo is 104 F and London is 68 F, the statement is no longer true.

Not meaningful if we only have an ordinal scale for criticality (common scale for software failures is catastrophic, significant, moderate, minor, and insignificant).

51

Measurement Basics

Meaningfulness in measurement

Note that our notion of meaningfulness says nothing about

Usefulness Practicality Worthwhile Ease of measurement

52

Measurement Basics

Statistical operations on measures

Analyses dont have to be sophisticated, but we want to know something about how a set of data is distributed. What types of statistical analysis are relevant to a given measurement scale?

Scale type Nominal Ordinal Interval Defining relations Equivalence Equivalence, Greater than Equivalence, Greater than, Known ratio of any intervals Equivalence, Greater than, Known ratio of any intervals, Known ratio of any two scale values Examples of appropriate statistics Mode, Frequency Median, Percentile, Spearman r, Kendall r, Kendall W Mean, Standard deviation, Pearson product-moment correlation, Multiple product-moment correlation Geometric mean, Coefficient of variation

Ratio

53

Measurement Basics

Indirect measurement and meaningfulness

Done when measuring a complex attribute in terms of simpler sub-attributes Scale type for an indirect measure M is generally no stronger than the weakest of the scale types of the sub-attributes

Example testing efficiency=defects/effort

Defects is on the absolute scale, while effort is on the ratio scale. Therefore effort is on the ratio scale. What is E=2.7v+121w+26x+12y+22z-497, where v is the number of program instructions x and y are the number of internal and external documents z is the program size in words w is a subjective measure of complexity

54

Overview

1. Measurement what is it and why do we do it? 2. Measurement basics 3. A goal-based software measurement framework

55

1. Classifying software measures 2. Determining what to measure

56

Classifying software measures

Three types of software entities to measure

Processes collections of software related activities Products Resources entities required by a process activity

Internal attributes measured purely in terms of the entity itself External attributes measured with respect to how entity relates to its environment. Behavior of the entity is important

However, external attributes are more difficult to measure than internal ones, and are measured late in the development process Desire is to predict external attributes in terms of more easily-measured internal attributes 57

Determining what to measure

Measurement is useful only if it helps understand the underlying process or one of its resultant products Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) has been proven to be effective in selecting and implementing metrics

List the major goals of the development project Derive from each goal the questions that must be answered to determine if goals are being met Decide what must be measured in order to be able to answer the questions adequately

58

GQM example goal is to evaluate effectiveness of coding standard

Goal Goal Questions Who is using standard? What is coder productivity? What is code quality?

Metrics

Effort

Errors

59

GQM example 2 AT&T goals, questions, metrics

Goal Plan Questions How much does the inspection process cost? How much calendar time does the inspection process take? Monitor and control What is the quality of the inspected software? To what degree did the staff conform to the procedures? What is the status of the inspection process? Metrics Average effort per KLOC Percentage of reinspections Average effort per KLOC Total KLOC inspected Average faults detected per KLOC Average inspection rate Average preparation rate Average inspection rate Average preparation rate Average lines of code inspected Total KLOC inspected Defect removal efficiency Average number of faults detected per KLOC Average inspection rate Average preparation rate Average lines of code inspected Average effort per fault detected Average inspection rate Average preparation rate Average lines of code inspected 60

Improve

Templates for goal definition

Purpose to (characterize, evaluate, predict, motivate, etc.) the (process, product, model, metric, etc.) in order to (understand, assess, manage, engineer, learn, improve, etc.) it.

Example To evaluate the maintenance process in order to improve it.

Perspective Examine the (cost, effectiveness, correctness, defects, changes, product measures, etc.) from the viewpoint of the (developer, manager, customer, user, etc.)

Example Examine the cost from the viewpoint of the manager

Environment The environment consists mainly of the following: process factors, people factors, problem factors, methods, tools, constraints, etc.

Example the maintenance staff are poorly motivated programmers who have limited access to tools.

61

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