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Human Resource Management

Hiring :
Job Analysis,
Manpower Planning,

Recruitment,
Selection & On-boarding

Job Analysis- Applications

Organizational Structure-SBUs, Divisions, Depts.


Job Structure How should tasks be structured in positions, jobs, job families Degrees of Authority /Decision Making Span of control Performance Standards

Selection Criteria
Career Aspirations & Succession Plans Training Plans C&B
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Job Analysis

Exercise: Do Job Analysis for an HR role-Generalist, T&D, PMS, R&S, C&B

Job Design / Redesign- Hackman & Oldham model


Job Dimension Effect Example (producing critical psychologi cal states) Gives meaning to work people do Gives meaning to work people do Loading, unloading, checking, packing, counting no. of units produced for a worker; Inputter & Auditor at PONL Let an engineer lead the entire maintenance program of a machine aiming to reduce down time Defense officer, Safety Manager, Quality Engineer, NGO, Teacher, Recruiter, Entrepreneur, HR/Trg Mgr

Skill variety-variety of different activities that challenge different skills & talent of a person Task Identity-person completes a coherent, whole peace of work having a tangible outcome

Task significance-impact on Gives lives or work of other people meaning to work people do

Job Design / Redesign- Hackman & Oldham model


Job Dimension Effect Example (producing critical psychologic al states) Gives sense of responsibility to job holder Give complete charge of supervising shifts, machine running time, manpower handling, routine maintenance to production engineer; OBT at PONL Daily reports and problem solving meetings, Performance & Development reviews

Autonomy-freedom from supervision, independence in deciding how job should be done Feedback-clear and direct information about their performance

Gives knowledge of results to job holder

Job Design /Re-Design

Job Enrichment: Vertical loading of job. Responsible for the next step processes as well. More responsibility within own function to set their own pace, deciding their own methods, increasing their autonomy.

E.g. A stores person directly making his own dispatch plans.

Job Design /Re-Design Job Enrichment:

E.g. In a manufacturing firm, workers used to clean their machines. They were alloted additional maintenance tasks which till then were done by engineers/supervisors. In time, they acquired new knowledge about how machines behaved & were able to anticipate & prevent machine breakdown.Over a period of time, increased responsibilities(job enlargement) led to changes in job content (skill variety & more autonomy), acquisition & application of new knowledge, and subsequent improvements in performance i.e. overall fewer breakdowns- Wall, Corbett 1990

Job Design /Re-Design

Job Enlargement
Horizontal loading of job- expands the scope generally by combining more than one job so more variety and wholeness. E.g. A driver is given additional tasks of computer data entry at office between schedules (waiting)-KC E.g. An accounts clerk also helping in taxes, audits & legal compliances. A Sales person also involved in product /brand media Planning /Pricing

Some Current Issues & Trends in Hiring

1. Resources- including Time & Cost 2. Accuracy of assessment 3. Candidates expectations

4. Specialist staffing skills


5. Employment market & Talent availability 6. Equal opportunity & Diversity

7. Recruitment of Expatriates (vs. local)


8. E-recruitment 9. Outsourcing: Hiring Process- Headhunters, Consultants etc 10. Outsourcing: Manpower-Buy or Lease 11. Affirmative Action
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Human Resource Planning

Definition:

The process of forecasting organization's future demand and supply of the right type of people in the right nos

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HR Planning

Environment scanningEconomy, Technology, Demography etc

Organizational Objectives & Policy

HR needs forecast
Managerial judgment , Ratio-trend analysis, Work study techniques, modeling

HR Supply forecast
Skill inventories, turnover/ retention rates, external supply, movement of people, bench

HRP(P)

If Surplus
Restricted hiring, Reduced hours VRS, Lay off etc

If Shortage
Recruitment & Selection, Development

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Factors affecting HRP:


1. Type & strategy of organization-internal development vs. infusing fresh talent, organic vs. inorganic growth etc 2. Organizational growth phase -start-up, growing, mature (BCG) 3. Environmental uncertainties-political, social, economic-labor laws, VRS.. 4. Type & quality of information available (internal-thru job analysis/HRIS etc) & external through estimation of talent availability 5. Nature of jobs being filled- worker vs. managers, specialist skills sets-scientists, ERP professionals etc 6. Technology

7. Outsourcing
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HRP Forecaster Demand & Supply of Manpower

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HRP Forecaster-Demand Some Techniques (can be quali/quanti, normative/descriptive, past/future based): Managerial judgment Ratio-trend analysis Work study techniques Delphi Modeling/Software packages Scenario Analysis
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HRP Forecaster-Supply

External / Market supply


External Labor market Competition No of eligible candidates passing from colleges, institutes Employment exchanges Etc

Internal Supply:
Skill /Competency inventories, HRIS Turnover/ Retention rates Movement of people (promotion, transfers, retirement etc) Bench /Virtual Pool Talent Management process
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Dealing with an Undersupply of manpower

Hire additional workers Improve productivity through training Use overtime Add additional shifts Reassign jobs Use temporary workers Improve retention

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Dealing with an Oversupply of Manpower

Freeze hiring Restrict overtime Retrain/redeploy Switch to part-time employees Use unpaid vacations Use a shorter workweek Use pay reductions Use sabbaticals Encourage early retirements

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Reducing a real/expected Labor Surplus Option Relative Speed Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Slow Slow Slow Relative Pain High High High Moderate Moderate Low Low Low

1.Downsizing 2.Pay Reduction 3.Demotions 4.Transfers 5.Work sharing 6.Retirement 7.Natural attrition 8.Retraining
Source : Human Resources ManagementGaining a competitive advantage

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Avoiding an Expected Labor Shortage Option Revocability 1.Overtime 2.Temps 3.Outsourcing 4.Retrained transfers 5.Turnover reductions Moderate 6.New external hires Source : Human Resources Management7.Technological innovation Gaining a competitive advantage Speed Fast Fast Fast Slow Slow Slow Slow High High High High

Low Low
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Recruitment

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Meaning and definition:

Searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected..!! Discovering of potential applicant for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.

A linking activity between those who have jobs and those who want jobs..!! Process of finding & attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. 33

Factors governing recruitment:

External Forces
Supply Demand Political (e.g. legislations) Social (e.g. Sons of soil) Economic

Internal forces
Recruitment policy HRP Cost Urgency

Other HR processes
Growth & expansion

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Recruitment Channels / Sources:

External:
Professional or trade associations Advertisements Employment exchanges Campus recruitment Walk-ins and Write-ins Consultants Contractors Displaced persons Radio and television Acquisitions and mergers Competitors E-Recruiting
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Recruitment Channels / Sources:

Internal:
Present employees Employee referrals Former employees Previous applicants

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Internal and External sources- A comparison Demerits Merits


I n t e r n a l

-Opportunities in the organization are made available & helps morale - More accurate assessment of on- the- job- behavior - Company is aware of strengths and weaknesses of candidate - Low cost -Larger group to select from -Infusion of competition, new ideas, new blood - New beginning with no political intrigue

-Political infighting, hostile atmosphere (e.g. peer jealousy) - Inbreeding, stifle creativity - Demoralising of those not selected

E x t e r n a l

-Longer adjustment period -Morale problem among internal employees -On the job behavior not precisely known
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Choice of Recruitment Process /Source


Source Cost of Time proces taken s
High Low

Nos requir ed

Level of position

Future need of similar profiles

Load on internal resource s

Consultant s Portal

Mediu Low m High High

Medium to high Low to medium Very High

Not suitable Low to medium Yes High

Executive Search Adv in newspaper Referral

Very High Very High Low

Low High

Very Low

Not suitable Low Yes High

High to All very high Mediu m Low to Medium

High

Yes

Low
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Choice of Recruitment Process /Source


Source Cost of Time proces taken s
Low Low Low Mediu m High Low

Nos require d

Level of Future positio need of n similar profiles

Load on internal resourc es


Medium Low Low

IJP Employment Exchange Specialized training /vocational centers Campus hiring from Professional Colleges

Low to Low to Yes medium medium Medium Low Medium Low Yes Yes

Low to mediu m

Low

Medium Low to high

NS

Medium

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Selection

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A Typical Selection Process

Job analysis Develops criteria / Process Validity /Reliability

Assess candidates Application forms Tests /Interview References/Fitness Evaluate all information

Hire/Reject
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Assessment Mechanisms

Screening of Application / Resume Tests -General ability, Special aptitude Tests- Personality/Motivation/Interest Interviews Work sample tests On - field accompaniment Case discussions Presentations Group processes In-tray exercises Reference Checks Handwriting Analysis Simulations Assessment Centers
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Reliability

Does the process gives consistent results over a period of time / different raters etc

E.g. Selection Interviews conducted for same person for same job- may be by different panels- does it gives similar results ?
Broken ruler ?

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Validity

Are you measuring what you are supposed to measure ?

E.g. To test a person for a job of a fresh mechanical engineer, will you ask him questions on financial ratios

Tell me your family background, how many friends you have ??

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Perfect Prediction- Smith, Gregg and Andrews - 1987


Chance

0.7 0.6 . 0.5 0.4

Assessment Centers (developme

Work Sample Tests Ability Tests


Assessment centers (selection) Personality Tests

Structured Interviews
0.3 0.2 Typical Interviews References Astrology / Graphology

0.1
0

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Psychometric Testing Psychometric= Measurement of the mind. Technique of educational & psychological measurement i.e. Intellectual abilities, Competence, Personality, Motivation, Career interests etc Traditionally-pen & paper, multiple choice questionnaires; Modern-Online computer screens Generally require applicants to work through a large number of items in a given amount of time
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Supporters say:
Provide valuable evidence which is not revealed by other methods They are somehow objective, contrasting strongly with the subjectivity of interviewing Managers involved in recruiting have more possibilities for assessment available

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Critics say: Proliferation of tests promoted by people without adequate training Extravagant claims about their value & effectiveness. Poor application of tools, eg. inadequate job analysis, wrong usage, misinterpretation of results etc Inadequate definition of concept to be measured Words defined differently by developers (eg. innovator) causing confusion.

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General Test Variations:

Achievement /Attainment Aptitude/ Ability Interest/ Motivation Personality

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Achievement /Attainment Measure extent to which a person possesses skills & knowledge acquired through formal training / education Indicates what a person has learnt

E.g. General Awareness, Knowledge of Geography etc

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Aptitude/ Ability
Collection of abilities of value in a particular contextpredict success in direct or related work Tests measure ability to think, reason & learn

Tests are timed & examination conditions

administered

under

strict

E.g. Mathematical Verbal Spatial

Sample: SHL Tests Batteries Matrix.xls , KC-Aptitude tests\JE Mechanical test (Sep 06).doc
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Interest/ Motivation Examines ones motivation & drive with a view to determine the direction in which s/he wants to go occupationally

E.g. Religious / Social / Economic / Outdoor


E.g. SHL MQ identifies situations/tasks which bring out the best in a person. Test has descriptions of situations that commonly occur in the workplace and is asked to rate the effect of each on their personal motivation to work.

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Personality
The relatively stable & distinctive pattern of behavior that characterizes an individual and his/her reaction to the environment -(Kaplan 1993) First used in officers selection in US Army
Examples: Extrovert / Introvert Aggressive / Submissive Calm / Tense Imaginative / Pragmatic

Lets look at some tests-PI, Workplace Big 5.


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Selection Interview
A formal interaction between candidate/s & employer to assess suitability for a particular role

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Exercise: Conduct an interview to select applicant for SIBM-2 year full-time MBA course

Volunteers- 1 as candidate, 2 as interviewers (asking questions)


Everybody else is an observer / evaluator- what went well/not well

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Why Interview:

Bottom-line Test - Answering Three Key Questions


Can he do the job? Will he do the job? Will he fit in (Team / organization)? (Match) (Ability) (Motivation )

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A Typical Interview-An Information Sorting Model


Structure Opening, Rapport Building Current and Previous Roles Aspirations & Awareness Education & Upbringing Circumstances & Interests Closing / Wrap up Information sorting

Critical Attributes
CA 1

CA 2
ASSESSMENT

CA 3

CA 4

CA 5
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Specific Factors to probe in the Interview:

1.

Intellectual: complexity of tasks performed, grades in school /college, aptitude test results, how person organises his/her thoughts & communicates, can ask situational qs/problems
Motivation: Probe on likes/dislikes, aspirations-past & current (with reasons), energy levels etc

2.

3.

Personality: Look for some traits- aggression, blaming, restlessness etc), explore persons past interpresonal relationships & interactions (friends, family, social group memberships), also persons behavior during intw itself-shy, outgoing, interested etc
Knowledge & Experience: Can ask situational qs- how will you design a website /advertising plan/ performance appraisals system etc

4.

Some Sample Qs

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Good Questions Purposeful Relevant Clear and concise Limited to one idea

Neutral in tone and substance

Listening, Questioning, Probing

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THE QUALITY AND VALUE OF ANSWER DEPENDS ON THE QUALITY OF THE QUESTION

Sample Interview Rating Sheet

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Competency

Any quality or characteristic of a person which underpins successful performance

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Competencies and Trainability

SKILLS
TRAITS MOTIVES VALUES COGNITIVE CAPABILITIES

Less Conscious Less Trainable

KNOWLEDGE

More Conscious
More Trainable

Eg. Knows law Eg. Results orientation, planning abilities


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Competency

Knowledge- Can he do the job (ability) Skills- Can he do the job Attitude- Will he do the job (willingness) (ability)

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Competency Based Interviewing Premise: Past Behavior is one of the best predictor of future behavior Competencies Behavioral elements (indicators) Questions Record existence & consistency of past behaviors

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Competency Based Interviewing- Influencing

Definition: Reasons effectively to persuade towards achievement of larger goals. Uses multiple approaches data, examples / illustration, shared benefits et al to make his/her point

Some Behavioral indicators: Does not impose decisions, shows cooperative attitude while convincing people why the decision is necessary Prepares for counter-arguments & resistance in advance Relate the benefits of ideas or recommendations to the needs & interests of others Presents data & compelling arguments to support positions.

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Influencing- Some Questions that can be asked:

As an HR manager, what are/have been the problems you face in persuading line managers? How do/did you manage it? Any good suggestion you made that was accepted by your boss or colleagues? How did you present it? Any good suggestion you made that was rejected by your boss or colleagues? Why was it rejected? Have you ever sold an unpopular idea? When was the last time you needed to negotiate for something?

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Competency Based Interviewing-Managerial Planning

Definition: Deploy resources to meet targets and standards. Do it on time.

Some Behavioral indicators: Establish clear objectives with milestones & priorities. Plans for resources, budgets, approvals for timely implementation Considers multiple approaches to achieve stated objectives Anticipates potential risks & bottlenecks, has a back-up plan

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Managerial Planning- Some Questions that can be asked: Have you ever had to readjust a timetable due to unforeseen circumstances? How did you go about it? What are your functions /department's long and short term plans? What were your work objectives last year? How much were they achieved? Describe a normal working day or week for me. How do you plan your daily activities? How do you manage distractions to work ?

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Questioning & Assessment


Questions to check how candidate has actually performed in similar situations in past, not how he intends to perform in future Focus on more recent & work related situations Look for specific evidence for ability to perform effectively in key areas of the job Look for trends or patterns- Has the candidate been consistent?
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STAR/CBOQuestioning ORCE- Assessment

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Questioning pattern
BROAD OPEN ENDED PROBE NARROW CLOSE SUMMARISE

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Exercise-Interview Position : HR Manager Competency: Verbal Communication

Behavioral indicators: 1. 2. 3. 4. My Question Bank 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Competency Based Interviewing- Verbal Communication

Definition: Effectively sends & receives messages towards accomplishment of task

Some Behavioral indicators: Can present thoughts/ideas in a structured & logical manner Listens & checks for own understanding Changes communication method/style to suit audience or situation Seeks to understand not only the words but also feelings & underlying messages/concerns Can give feedback & influence others when required Uses multiple channels/approaches to communicate effectively

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Verbal Communication- Some Questions that can be asked: Tell me about a time/ When did you last /Give me an example where you: Varied your communication style to suit your audience Were required to explain something difficult or complex to a customer or work colleague Misinterpreted somebodys communication Used your verbal communication skills to make a difference

Were faced with objections from a customer or colleague


Needed to negotiate for something?

Some more Competencies/Questions


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Interviews- Things to Avoid Snap judgments Poor knowledge of the job Halo or Horn Effective Succumbing to pressure to Hire Candidate- order ( Contrast) Error Playing Psychologist

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Effective Interviewer
a. Preparing Understanding JD & JS Go thru the CV/other info on candidate Sufficient Time / Comfortable Place Question Bank Standardize evaluation form Pre Training of Interviewers During interviews Establish rapport Make notes(since we forget quickly) without disturbing Send the candidate away with a pleasant feeling.
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b. c.

d.

Assessment Centers

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What: Process of standardized evaluation of candidate/s using multiple job related simulations to observe, record & assess behaviors relevant to the most critical aspects (or competencies) of the job.

Why: High Face Validity replicate kinds of tasks we complete in our daily work e.g. meetings, presentations, dealing with emails, performance reviews, negotiations etc One of the highest predictive validity Can be customized to meet specific needs

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AC-Steps
Study job descriptions & identification of critical work challenges

Critical work challenges translated to competencies


Designing Exercises to test those competencies Conducting exercises to observe demonstrated behavior linked to competencies

Consensus building among different assessors towards final scoring


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AC-Design Principles
Combination of different types of exercises

Maximum 4 - 5 competencies checked in each exercise Each competency is observed at least twice
Each person to be observed by more than one observer

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AC-Design
Typical Types of Exercises:

Individual
In Tray Analysis Presentation Introduction Topic Presentation Case Analysis

Interpersonal
Role Play One to One discussion Negotiation & Influencing Ex. Counseling or feedback Ex.

Group
Leaderless group Discussion Assigned Leader Discussion Planning and Budgeting Case Discussion

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An AC at TMTC
Group Discussion leaderless Ad Design Exercise 2 3 1 4 1 1 3 Group Discussion Assigned Leader Caselets Exercise 2 2 3 2 2.5 2 1 3.5
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Kind of Simulation CompetenciesTLPs Drive for Results Decision Making Taking Ownership Communication Skills Interpersonal Effectiveness

Individual exercise Coaching exercise

Role Play Irate Customer Exercise

Mea n

How a competency is assessed


Competency Explanation Some behavioral indicators Score/ Remar ks

Interpersonal Establishes climate of Effectiveness openness & trust Being open and candid with people rather than being vague or indirect Understands & Responds

Serves as a patient listener Displays sensitivity to feelings Respects opinions & underlying needs of individuals Acknowledges feedback, interprets underlying messages & demonstrates understanding May share own feelings in being such a situation
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How a competency is assessed


Competency
Taking ownership

Explanation
Accepts responsibility for consequences of ones actions and decisions
Following through on commitments made Face Conflicting situations in honest & direct manner

Some behavioral indicators


Upholds commitments

Score & Remarks

States own assumptions forthrightly Stays non-defensive about ones recommendations , yet adhering to certain principles consistently

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Reference/background Check

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What can be checked: (i) Facts: Employment records (salary, position, length of service, performance ratings, reasons for leaving etc) Criminal Record, Credit History, Identity Proofs etc

(ii) Opinions:

Integrity, Discipline, Punctuality


Attitude & Personality- Leadership Style, Interpesonal Effectiveness, Team work, commitment etc

Strengths/Weaknesses
Achievements/ Rewards etc

Infy sample ref. check form

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Induction /Orientation

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Define: Systematic & Planned introducton of employee to their jobs, coworkers and the organisation.

1. Organisational: History,Vision/Mission/Values, Structure, Products & Services, Competitors, Financials, Business Objectives etc

2. Departmental /Functional: Dept Structure & Key People, Interrelationships, Norms etc

3. Role: Responsibility-Authority, Reporting, Internal/external customers, KRAs/Objectives & Measurements, resources etc

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4. HR:
Discipline, Safety Main policies: Leaves, Probation, Work timings Facilities-transport, canteen, recreation etc Benefit Schemes -Insurance, Outings, Rewards, cultural activities etc Compensation & Benefits (Details of grade/designation, perks, variable pay etc)

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Thank you.

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