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The Comprehensive Planning Process

WITH EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE OF THE ARCHITECT IN THE PLANNING PROCESS

PL 511 | Urban & Regional Planning


Slideshow developed by: Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP Bohol Island State University | College of Architecture & Engineering

UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING is a term used by land use planners to describe a PROCESS that determines COMMUNITY GOALS AND ASPIRATIONS in terms of COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. The outcome of comprehensive planning is the COMPREHENSIVE PLAN which dictates public policy in terms of transportation, utilities, land use, recreation, and housing. Comprehensive plans typically ENCOMPASS large geographical areas, a broad range of topics, and cover a LONG-TERM time horizon. Also known as STRATEGIC PLANNING or VISIONING.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_planning

The 1909 PLAN OF CHICAGO is known today as the first comprehensive plan and it began a movement of comprehensive planning that emphasized planning as a way to not only make cities more beautiful, but to function better as well. Also know as the Burnham Plan, it was co-authored by Daniel Burnham and Edward H. Bennett. It recommended an integrated series of projects including new and widened streets, parks, new railroad and harbor facilities, and civic buildings. Though only portions of the plan were realized, the document reshaped Chicago's central area and was an important influence on the new field of city planning.

COMPREHENSIVE PLANING

GOALS
Comprehensive plans are usually prepared for a period of 20 years. 1. HEALTH: Achieving a pattern of land use with certain protection for the public health is a strong planning goal. Separating industrial and residential communities can help achieve this goal. 2. PUBLIC SAFETY: The easy access to ambulances in emergencies, fire safety, separate paths for children near schools, and walking paths for old people form a part of public safety. This might include building patterns where robberies in houses can also be avoided.

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COMPREHENSIVE PLANING

GOALS
3. CIRCULATION: Provision of parking facilities and a rapid traffic flow indicates a good circulation plan. Public transportation also comes under the same category. 4. PROVISION OF SERVICES AND FACILITIES: Providing facilities like schools, recreational clubs, and hospitals form a basic part of this planning. One important land use control is providing police stations and fire protection services as well.

5. FISCAL HEALTH: The government has to decide on the fiscal (expenditures) issues in advance. The fiscal zoning has to done carefully so that the property taxes are always collected as they become the revenue for governments.

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COMPREHENSIVE PLANING

GOALS
6. ECONOMIC GOALS: One of the main goals is also the economic growth for a society. The employment rate can be increased with relation to fiscal growth. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: Protection of environment by creating laws favorable for environment is the main idea in this. Environmental Protection planning aims to separate industrial areas from the residential and commercial locations.

8. REDISTRIBUTIVE GOALS: Some planners argue that the main goal of planning should be to distribute the wealth and influence among all sections of the community.

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UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


The process includes a participatory plan making criteria. The major components are:

1. A research phrase 2. Clarification of community goals and objectives 3. A period of plan formulation 4. A period of plan implementation 5. A period of review and revision
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_planning

UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


Comprehensive Planning follows a typical planning process which consists of eight (8) different steps.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. IDENTIFYING ISSUES STATING GOALS COLLECTING DATA PREPARING THE PLAN CREATING IMPLEMENTATION PLANS EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES ADOPTING THE PLAN IMPLEMENTING AND MONITORING THE PLAN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_planning

UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


Research regarding the population trends can change the planning process, for example as the population increases more land would have to be developed. A community might set forth a goal of the kind:

Providing houses at affordable prices


But by doing so the community might face problems of high densities of residents and traffic congestions.
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UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


Planning agencies which are large with good number of research staff make considerable use of planning research.

One common type of study is that of the population forecast. There are various methods for population forecasts like the Cohort Survival.
One advantage of the Cohort Survival technique is that it gives a detailed forecast. The coordination between planning and forecasting is very difficult and hard to achieve. Land Use Inventory is another method for population forecast.
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The Cohort Survival Projection Method is a simple method for forecasting what the future population will be based upon the survival of the existing population and the births that will occur. This method can be applied for any period of time but it typically it involves five-year steps. Applied once it would give the population five years ahead; applied twice it would give the population ten year ahead. For five year projection the base year population must be given by five year age groups.

UNDERSTANDING THE

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS


In recent years, the traditional paper map for recording has been done using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, interpret, and understand data to reveal relationships, patterns, and trends.

The maps that might take a draftsperson several days to draw can often be done by GIS in a few minutes.
Studies related to infrastructure are also common.
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THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS

FORMULATING COMMUNITY GOALS


The MAIN AIM of formulating goals is to SEPARATE different planning activities from each other.

Planning agency plays a major role in this by formation of forums and boards.
The citizens and groups who have a certain stake in the planning should not be excluded.

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THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS

FORMULATING THE PLAN


Municipalities generally formulate plans in any region. For example to reduce traffic congestions on a road, various plans are looked for like widening the road or not allowing parking in that zone. Once these plans are set forth, costs and merits are listed and it is known as impact analysis.

The planners decide the best option by taking the political factor into consideration as well. Politics is the art of compromise and differences are to be resolved at the initial stages rather than doing it at later stages.

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THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS

IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN


The two most powerful tools for carrying out the planning are capital investments and land-use controls.

If the co-ordination between capital investments and land-use controls is missing then the results will be disappointing.
The capital investments and land-use plans should go hand in hand to meet the communities visions.

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THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS

REVIEWING & UPDATING THE PLAN


Planning usually doesnt proceed as expected and replanning becomes necessary. Adjustment in plans are done along with periodic reviews. Expenditures, revenues are generally hard to be predicted. Beyond updating the database, it is also necessary to keep a track of the goals and strategies.

The community needs to be kept in touch with the planning goals.


The Planning Director can play a major role in this by explaining to the community about the developments that are expected in the society in the near future.

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THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROCESS

HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THEY?


The plans reflect the communitys interest in the development and if the region has a large municipality with good fiscal incomes, then the plans are nicely implemented. Unpredictability in planning always exists and plans are scraped if they do not look feasible. Therefore for plans to move forward, the support of the people of that location is very crucial as it helps in developing that region.

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Images from the Industrial Revolution

References:
Approaches to Planning: Introducing Current Planning Theories, Concepts and Issues (2nd Edition) by Ernest Alexander, USA: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1992 Introduction to Urban Planning by Anthony J. Catanese and James C. Snyder, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1979 Urban and Regional Planning (2nd Edition) by Peter Hall, UK: Thetford Press Limited, 1982 An Introduction to Regional Planning by John Glasson, London: Hutchinson & Co., 1975

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