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Chapter 22 Transport Layer

22.1 Duties

22.2 Connection
22.3 The OSI Transport Protocol

Data Communications and Networking

Transport Layer(contd)

Transport layer acts as a liaison between the upper-layer protocols and the lower-layer protocols.

To make this separation possible, the transport layer is

independent of the physical network. Examples: TCP, UDP,

An internetwork

Data Communications and Networking

22.1 Duties of the Transport Layer

Transport layer concept

Data Communications and Networking

Duties of the Transport Layer(contd)

Transport layer compared with data link layer

The services of the transport layer are similar to those of the


data link layer.

Data Communications and Networking

Duties of the Transport Layer(contd)

The services provided by transport layer protocols:

Data Communications and Networking

End-to-End Delivery

The network layer treats each packet as an independent entry, even those belonging to a single message. The transport layer oversees the end-to-end (source-todestination) delivery of an entire message.

Data Communications and Networking

Addressing

Levels of Service Access Points

Data link level protocols need to know which two computers


within a network are communicating. MAC address Network level protocols need to know which two computers within an internet are communicating. IP address Transport level protocols need to know which upper-layer protocols are communicating. Port

Data Communications and Networking

Addressing (contd)

In transport layer, service access points identifies upper-layer services (applications).

Data Communications and Networking

Reliable Delivery

Aspects of reliable delivery

Data Communications and Networking

Reliable Delivery(contd)

Error Control

Mechanisms for error control are based on error detection and


retransmission. Error detections are performed using algorithms implemented in software, such as checksum. We already have error handling at the data link layer, why do we need it at the transport layer?

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Reliable Delivery(contd)

Sequence Control
Segmentation

Reassembly

What is important is that segments are properly reassembled at


the destination.
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Reliable Delivery(contd)

Segmentation and Reassembly

Transport layer adds a sequence number at each segment. This number indicates the order for reassembly. Each segment carries a field that indicates whether it is the final
segment or middle segment of a transmission.

Concatenation and Separation

When the size of the data unit belonging to a single session is

so small that several units can fit together into a single datagram. A sequence number at each unit allows correct separation at the destination.

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Reliable Delivery(contd)

Loss Control

Sequence numbers allow the receivers transport layer protocol


to identify any missing segments and request redelivery.

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Reliable Delivery(contd)

Duplication Control

Sequence numbers allow the receiver to identify and discard


duplicate segments.

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Flow Control

Flow control at this layer is performed end-to-end rather than across a single link. A sliding window is used to make data transmission more efficient as well as to control the flow of data so that the receiver does not become overwhelmed. Some points about sliding windows at the transport layer:

The sender does not have to send a full windows worth of data. An acknowledgment can expand the size of the window based
on the sequence number of the acknowledged data segment. The size of the window can be increased or decreased by the receiver. The receiver can send an acknowledgment at anytime.
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Data Communications and Networking

Flow Control(contd)

Sliding window

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Flow Control(contd)

Sliding windows used at the transport layer are usually byte oriented rather than frame oriented.

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Multiplexing

Upward Multiplexing The transport layer can send several transmissions bound for the same destination along the same path. It is useful when the underlying networks have high throughput. Downward Multiplexing It is useful when the underlying networks have low or slow capacity(e.g., X.25s three bit sequence code).

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22.2 Connection

End-to-end delivery can be accomplished in either of two modes: Connection-oriented transmission has three stages: connection establishment, data transfer, connection termination.

Connectionless transmission

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Connection(contd)

Connection establishment(three-way handshaking)

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Connection(contd)

Connection termination(three-way handshaking)

Termination at TCP: four-way handshaking


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22.3 The OSI Transport Protocol

To avoid redundant services, the OSI model defines five types of transport classes:

TP0: Simple class TP1: Basic error recovery class TP2: Multiplexing class TP3: Error recovery and multiplexing class TP4: Error detection and recovery class

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The OSI Transport Protocol(contd)

Which class is used depends on the type of service required by the upper layers.

TP0 and TP2 are used with perfect network layers.


damaged is almost zero.

In the perfect network layer, the number of packets that are lost or

TP1 and TP3 are used with residual-error network layers.


never corrected.

In the residual-error network layer, some percentage of errors are


TP4 provides fully reliable, full-duplex, connection-oriented
services similar to TCP.

TP4 is used with unreliable network layers.

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The OSI Transport Protocol(contd)

TPDU(Transport Protocol Data Unit)

Length : Total number of bytes (excluding the length field itself)

in the TPDU. Fixed Parameters :

Code : CR, CC, DR, DC, DT(data), ED, AK, EA, RJ, ER Source and destination reference Sequence number Credit allocation : It enables a receiver to tell the sender how
many more data units may be sent.

Variable(Optional) Parameters : Data

These parameters are used mostly for management.


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Data Communications and Networking

The OSI Transport Protocol(contd)

Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Service

The OSI model supports both COTS and CLTS. Connection-oriented model is more commonly used.

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