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Scientific investigation

Scientific skills

Science process skills

Promote thinking in a critical, creative and analytical manner

Manipulative skills
Are psychomotor skills required to carry out a successful scientific investigation

The steps involved in scientific investigation

Identifying a problems Forming a hypothesis Planning the experiment Identifying and controlling variables Conducting the experiment Collecting data Analysing data Interpreting data Drawing conclusions Writing a report

Identifying a problems
Begin with an observation of a specific phenomenon how did this happen? why is this is happening?

Forming a hypothesis
General statement about or a possible explanation for an observed phenomenon Validity has not been proven yet Must related between manipulated variables and responding variables

Planning the experiment

Determining the apparatus and materials needed Identifying the variables Determining the procedures involved in the experiments Determining the observations to be made and measurements to be taken The correct and safe technique to be used when conducting experiments

Identifying and controlling variables

Factors which influence the outcome of an investigation 3 types of variables i) manipulated variable- variable that always change ii) responding variable- variable that response in experiment iii) fixed or controlled variable- variable that kept constant

Conducting the experiment

When conducting experiments, the apparatus, materials and specimens used must be handled correctly and safely All variables must be determined and all observations must made accurately After experiment, the apparatus must be cleaned All unwanted materials must discarded in proper manner A quantitative experiment is often repeated three times to obtain more precise and reliable

Collecting data
The results of experiment are referred to as the data Data are obtained by observation and measurement Data gathered must accurate

Recording data
Can be presented in the form of tables, graphs, charts or diagrams

Analysing and interpreting data

Include tabulations and calculations of the results Information from the data must be analysed, explained and interpreted in detail The relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable must be stated clearly

Drawing conclusions
A rational conclusion is then drawn as to whether the results support or refuse the hypothesis

Writing a report
The framework of a report is as follows i) objective- state the aim of the experiment ii) problem statement- pose questions about the observations made iii) hypothesis- formulate a possible explanation or prediction based on observation iv) variables- identify and controlled the manipulated, responding and fixed variables v) materials and apparatus vi) technique


vii) procedure- should be written using reported speech. Ex: Examine the slide under the microscope should be written as The slide is examined under the microscope vii) results- present in the form of simple diagrams, chats, graphs or tables. Include calculation if necessary viii) discussion- discuss, analyse and interpret data. Determine the relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable xi) conclusion- draw conclusion based on hypothesis