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Topic I Introduction to Computer Architecture and Organization

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Reading List
Slides: Topics1x
Henn & Patt: Chapter 1 Henn & Patt: Chapter 2 Other papers as assigned in class or homeworks

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Topic 1: Outline of Computer Architecture and Organization


Ability to apply basic knowledge of computer architecture and organization in understanding overall design flow of a computer. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility of a computer engineer (in particular, computer architect)
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What Does it Mean by Architecture??


The art or science or building...the art or practice of designing and building structures...

Webster New College Dictionary

including plan, design, construction and decorative treatment...

American College Dictionary

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Computer Architecture

- the word coined by Fred Brooks

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Computer Architecture contd


Computer architecture is the computer as seen by the user - Amdhal et al, (64)

...by architecture, we mean the structure of the modules as they are organized in a computer system... - Stone, H. (1987)

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Computer Architecture contd


The architecture of a computer is the interface between the machine and the software - Andris Padges IBM 360/370 Architect

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Computer Architecture contd


Structure: Organization: static arrangement of the parts (plan) dynamic interaction of these parts and their management (design)

Implementation: the design of specific building blocks (construction) Performance evaluation: the behavior study of the system (decorative treatment)
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Architecture (from architects point of view)


Instruction set architecture Implementation Organization: high-level aspects
memory system bus structure internal CPU design

Hardware:
logic design packaging tech.

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Important Advice
Remember: the key is to learn how to evaluate architecture in the context of the technology available Methodology is most important, but not the conclusion

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Levels in Computer Organization


Concepts of multi-level machine

Concepts of virtual machine

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Architecture Disciplines

Hardware/software structure Algorithms and their implementation Language Issues and programming models

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The Big Picture


Both hardware and software consist of hierarchical layers, with each lower layer hiding details from the level above. This principle of abstraction is the way

both hardware designers and software designers cope with the complexity of computer systems. One

key interface between the levels of abstraction is the instruction set architecture: the interface between the hardware and low-level software. This abstract interface enables many implementations of varying cost and performance to run identical software.
John L. Hennessy David A. Patterson
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