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Mansoor Azam Qureshi

concrete

is a composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium in which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregates.

The

simplest definition of concrete can be written

as concrete = filler + binder

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Binders

Nonhydraulic cement Hydraulic cement Asphalt Polymer Cement Concrete is commonly known as concrete and Hydraulic cement concrete has modern day concrete.

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P A K I S T A N Plain ann Reinforced concrete - 1

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It

is inert material forming bulk of concrete. Size of material is criteria for its classification. Coarse Aggregate. Fine Aggregate

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Nonhydraulic Cement Concrete Use of lime by Roman 6500BC and Chinese 3000BC. Use of Gypsum by Egyptians 3000BC Production of Hydraulic Lime Lime mixed with Volcanic ash by Romans and

Greeks. Resistant to water. 50BC to 200AD Smeaton (1756) showed Lime stone with clay produced best Hydraulic lime
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James

Parker (1796) patent natural Hydraulic cement. Limestone + Clay( Pozzolans) Mixture of ground Limestone and pulverised clay burnt in kiln and fine grinding of material to make cement. Joseph Aspdin named it as Portland cement based on colour of limestone found in Portland. Issac Johnson (1845)improved burning to Clinkering stage to produce modern cement.

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Portland

cement + water (& admixtures) cement paste + fine aggregate mortar + coarse aggregate concrete Admixtures are defined as materials other than aggregate (fine and coarse), water, and cement that are added into a concrete.

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Cement

Binds the aggregates into a solid mass Imparts strength to concrete Makes concrete impermeable by filling up voids in fine

concrete
Sand

Fills the voids within coarse aggregates Assists in hardening of cement by allowing water to

seep through its voids Minimizes shrinking and cracking of concrete Economizes concrete by varying its proportion for strength
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Coarse

Aggregate

Acts as main filler, forms the main bulk mass Binding material adheres on its surface Imparts volumetric stability and durability to

concrete Increases crushing strength, resistance to wear and tear, and water tightness of concrete Economizes concrete since it is cheaper than cement

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Water

Chemically combines with various compounds to

form binding medium lubricates the surface of aggregates to improve workability and compaction Facilitates spreading of cement over fine aggregate

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Admixtures

Air entraining agents Retarding agents delay setting time Accelerators set and acquire strength rapidly

Water proofing agents pore filling, water

repelling Pozzolanas non-cementing, but forms lime compounds which are cementing Pigments Workability agents
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Economical Harden

at ambient temperature Ability to be cast Energy Efficient Water resistant High temperature resistance Ability to consume waste Ability to work with steel Less Maintenance required
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Brittle

failure mode Low tensile strength Low toughness Low specific strength Need Formwork Long curing time Working with cracks

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WHY CONCRETE
The most widely used construction material is concrete, commonly made by mixing portland cement with sand, crushed rock, and water. Last year in the U.S. 63 million tons of portland cement were converted into 500 million tons of concrete, five times the consumption by weight of steel. In many countries the ratio of concrete consumption to steel consumption exceeds ten to one. The total world consumption of concrete last year is estimated at three billion tons, or one ton for every living human being. Man consumes no material except water in such tremendous quantities.
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in April 1964

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Cement

consumption declined by 8.24 per cent during the fiscal year 2010-11 as compared to the last year utilization of the industry was at its lowest at 76.12 Per cent
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capacity

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Batching

or measurement of materials

Volume
(1 : m : n) cement : sand : aggregate. 50 kg cement bag is 34.5 liters

Weight
Mixing

Hand mixing. ((Cement + sand) + aggregate) + water Machine mixing by concrete mixers
Tilting mixers Non-tilting mixers Reversing drum mixers Pan type or stirring mixers Transit mixer

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Transporting

Mortar pan Wheel barrow Chutes

Dumper
Bucket and Ropeway Belt conveyor

Skip and Hoist


Pumping
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Placing.

Place within 30 minutes after adding

water

Foundations Beams, columns, slabs Mass concreting Highways and runways Underwater concreting Hand compaction Vibratory compaction Spinning compaction Jolting compaction
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Compacting

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Curing Water curing Steam curing Infra red radiation curing Electrical curing Chemical curing Finishing Formwork finishes Surface treatments Applied finishes
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