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Information Systems in Organizations

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Organizations & Information Systems

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Value Chain

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Organizational Structure
Organizational subunits and their relationship with the overall organization Categories of organizational structure: Team Traditional Multidimensional Project Virtual

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Traditional Organizational Structure

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Traditional Organizational Structure

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Project Organizational Structure

Centered on major products and services Temporary project teams, When the project is complete, the members go for a new project.

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Project Organizational Structure

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Team Organizational Structure


Temporary or permanent teams Work groups Various sizes

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Multidimensional Organizational Structure


May incorporate several structures at the same time Advantage: ability to simultaneously stress both traditional corporate areas and important product lines Disadvantage: multiple lines of authority
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Multidimensional Organizational Structure

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Virtual Organizational Structure Employs business units in geographically dispersed areas People may never meet face to face Can be permanent or temporary

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Organizational Culture and Change

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Organizational Culture
Shared understandings, values, and assumptions in an organization Influences information systems

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Organizational Change
Kurt Lewin & Edgar schein Proposed a Change Model

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Reengineering

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Reengineering

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Continuous Improvement
Constantly seeking ways to improve business processes to add value to products & services Benefits: Increased customer loyalty Reduction in customer dissatisfaction Reduced opportunity for competitive inroads

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Continuous Improvement vs. Reengineering

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Technology Diffusion, Infusion, and Acceptance


Technology diffusion - measure of widespread use of technology Technology infusion - extent to which technology permeates a department Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) specifies factors that can lead to higher usage of technology

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Total Quality Management (TQM)


Quality: ability of a product or service to meet or exceed customer expectations TQM: approaches, tools and techniques used to achieve quality throughout the organization

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Outsourcing and Downsizing


Outsourcing: contracting with outside professionals services to meet specific business needs
Downsizing: cutting the number of employees

Department of Commerce, University of Karachi

Summary
Value-added processes increase the relative worth of combined inputs on their way to becoming final outputs Business process reengineering involves the radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, and information systems Information systems personnel typically work in an information systems department that employs a chief information officer, systems analysts, and computer programmers
Department of Commerce, University of Karachi