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# Welcom e

If
If If If If

## I see someone stealing a car, Ill inform the police.

I arrive home late and find the door to my house open, Ill get worried. our car gets stuck in a snow storm, well have a snow fight. Im late for work, my boss will get angry. Im promoted, Ill throw a huge party.

Objectives
To

familiarize the participants with the rules of conditionals. To enable the participants to understand the structure of conditional sentences. To enable the participants to differentiate between different types of conditional sentences. To practice the use of conditional sentences.

CONDITIONALS
Conditionals are used to talk about possible or imaginary situations. A conditional is a situation or circumstance followed by a result.
IF If CONDITION(Clause) It rains, Result (Clause) We will get wet.

Or like this:
Result (Clause)
We will get wet

IF
if

Condition (Clause)
it rains.

## Structure of a Conditional Sentence

IF If Condition (clause) It rains, Result (clause) we will get wet.

OR

Result (clause)

IF

Condition (clause)

if

it rains.

## Ill inform the police if I see someone stealing a car.

Ill get worried if I arrive home late and find the door to my house open.
Well have a snow fight if our car gets stuck in a snow storm. My boss will get angry if Im late for work.

## Ill throw a huge party if Im promoted.

First Conditional

## If we hurry, we will catch the bus.

If I see Hafsa, I will tell her. If they dont pass the exam, their teacher will be sad.

## Use of First Conditionals

Use Possible future events and their results Command Offer Warnings Examples If it rains, Ill stay at home. If you come home late, dont make noise. Ill call the hotel if you dont have time. Ill call the police if you dont leave now!

## First Conditional (Tenses Used)

IF
If If If

Condition
Present Simple we hurry, I see Hafsa, they do not pass their exam,

Result
Will + Base Verb we will catch the bus. I will tell her. their teacher will be sad.

We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition i.e. the condition clause. We use will + base verb to talk about the possible future result i.e. the result clause.

## Second Conditional (example)

If

I won the lottery, I would buy a car. If Ali became rich, Shireen would marry him. If I got my salary, I would arrange dinner for you.

## Second Conditional (Tenses Used)

IF Condition Past Tense Verb/ 2nd Form of Verb If If I won the lottery, Ali became rich, Result Would + Base Verb I would but a car. Shireen would marry him.

We use the past tense verb to talk about the future condition. We use would + base verb to talk about the future result.

Modal Verbs
Sometimes we use shall, can, or may instead of will. For example: If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight. Sometimes we use should, could or might instead of would. For example: If I won a million dollars, I could stop working.

Interesting Facts
In the second conditional, with (he/she/it) the form was is not considered grammatically correct. In written English, you should always use were. However, in everyday conversation, we use was. Example: If he were French, he would live in Paris instead of If he was French , he would live in Paris.

Worksheet 1

Worksheet 1 (KEY)
a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Match the sentences and join them with if. If I drink coffee late at night, I will not be able to sleep. If I dont pay the bill today, I might get a warning letter. If Bilal jogs regularly, he might lose weight. If I hear any news, I will call you. If I lose my job now, I will take a long holiday. If Ali doesnt answer the phone this time, I will not call again.

## Work Sheet 1 Key

Write a sentence with If for each situation. This book is too expensive, so I am not going to buy it. I would buy the book if it wasnt so expensive. 2) We dont go out very often we cant afford it. We would go out more often if we could afford it. 3) I cant meet you tomorrow I have to work late. If I didnt have to work late, I could meet you tomorrow. Or I could meet you tomorrow if I didnt have to work late. 4) Its raining so we cant have lunch outside. We could have lunch outside if it was not raining. 5) I dont want his advice, and thats why I am not going to ask for it. If I wanted his advice I would ask for it.
b) 1)

## First Conditionals and Second Conditionals

Similarities In both the conditions we are thinking about the future. Differences 1st condition talks about the situations which are likely to occur. 2nd conditional talks about the situations which are unlikely to occur. In 1st condition there is real possibility that this condition will be fulfilled. 2nd condition is not real but it is still possible. Tenses used in both the conditionals are different.

Worksheet 2

Fill in the blanks using the clauses provided. If you take a look at the handout, youll find all the telephone numbers, address and other necessary information. If Tom were here, hed help me with this presentation. Unfortunately, he couldnt make it today. Ok, lets get started: Todays subject is helping guests with emergency situations. Wed certainly have a worse reputation if we didnt handle these situations well. Thats why we like to review these procedures every year. (CONTD.)

If a guest loses his passport, call the consulate immediately. If the consulate isnt nearby, youll have to help the guest to get to the appropriate consulate. It would be great if we had some more consulates here. However, there are also a few in Boston. Next, if a guest has an accident which is not so serious, youll find the first aid kit under the reception desk. If the accident is serious, call an ambulance.
(CONTD.)

Sometimes guests need to return home unexpectedly. If this happens, the guest might need your help making travel arrangements, re-scheduling appointments, etc. do everything you can to make this situation as easy to cope with as possible. If there is a problem, the guest will expect us to be able to handle any situation. Its our responsibility to make sure ahead of time that we can.

Third Conditional

If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car. If I had seen Sarah, I would have told her. If Ahmed would have been more careful, he wouldnt have fallen.

If you had been more careful, you wouldnt have cut yourself.

## Third Conditional (Tenses Used)

IF Condition Past Perfect Tense If If If

Result Would have + Past Participle I would have bought a car. I would have told her.

You had been more you wouldnt have careful, cut yourself.

We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use would have + past participle to talk about the impossible past result.

Dominoes (Key)
If Clause
If we hadnt gone to a casino , If I hadnt won a lot of money, If I hadnt had so much to drink, If I hadnt started a fight, If I hadnt been late for work,

Result Clauses
I wouldnt have won a lot of money. I wouldnt have had so much to drink. I wouldnt have started a fight. I wouldnt have been late for work the next day. I wouldnt have lost my job.

## If I hadnt lost my job,

If I had been able to gamble,

## I would have been able to gamble from time to time.

I might have won some money.

Zero Conditional

## If you heat ice, it melts.

If people dont eat, they get hungry.

## Zero Conditional (Tenses Used)

If Condition Present Simple If you heat ice, Result Present Simple it melts.

If
If

## they get hungry.

I get late for work.

We use the present simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use present simple tense to talk about the result. Both the condition and result are like facts.

Worksheet 3

Worksheet 3 (Key)
2. 3. 4 5. Or 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Or

c (Second Conditional) a (Zero conditional) b (Third conditional) a ( First conditional) c (Zero conditional) c (Second Conditional) b ( First conditional) c (Second Conditional) a (Third conditional) a (Zero conditional) b (Zero conditional) a (first conditional)

If and When

## (I rarely have days off from work)

Review Chart
Probability Conditional Certain Zero Conditional First Conditional Example If you heat water to 100C, It boils. (Simple tense in both the clauses) If it rains, I will stay in.
(Present simple Tense in the condition clause, will +base verb in the result clause)

Time Anytime

Likely

Future

Unlikely

Second Conditional

## If I won the lottery, I would retire.

(Past tense verb in the condition, clause would +base verb in the result clause.)

Future

Impossible

Third Conditional

## If I had seen him, I would have given him the message.

(Past Perfect tense=condition clause. Would have +past participle=result clause.)

Past

Thank You!