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The substances which are harmful to the respiratory system.

Bacteria and viruses which causes diseases are harmful to our respiratory system. Thus when we sneeze or cough, we must cover our nose and mouth with a handkerchief or a piece of tissue paper. In this way you can stop your cold and cough from spreading to other people. Some examples of these substances are .

1.Tobacco smoke contains many chemicals which are harmful to the body. It contains nicotine. This can effect the heart, blood vessels and nervous system. It raises blood pressure. This may lead to heart diseases. Nicotine- affects the cilia on the epithelial cells lining the air passages . This causes the loss of natural protection against dust and bacteria. A. Causes addiction. B. Damages brain tissues. C. Causes blood to clot more easily which may lead to stroke. D. Hardens walls of arteries whish may cause heart attacks.

Smoking is bad for our respiratory system. a) It can cause lung cancer. b) Smoking can cause heart attacks, blocked arteries and difficulty in breathing.

Carbon monoxide from cigarette smoke gets into the bloodstream and combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells. The transport of oxygen around the body is seriously effected. Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and poisonous gas which A. Causes a lack of oxygen in our body which may lead to headaches, brain damage or even death. Carcinogens are cancer causing agents which A. Cause various types of cancer. Irritants are chemicals which A. Irritates the air passages and alveoli in the lungs . B. Kill cells on the surface of the air passages and lungs. C. Cause smokers cough and lung cancer. This tar will stick to the linings of the lungs and collects in the alveoli. It is this chemicals that irritates the lungs and may cause lungs cancer. Tar is a sticky brown substance which A. Kills cells in the air passages and the lungs. B. Increases production of mucus and phlegm in the lungs.

2. Asbestos , widely used to insulate water pipes, furnaces and boilers can cause respiratory illness or lung cancer if its fibre is inhaled. 3. urea-formaldehyde, a type of foam insulation popular in the 1970s, can emit formaldehyde gas if it is improperly installed. This can cause lung irritation. 4.Exhaust gases are bad for our breathing system. Healthy people can suffer from lowered immunity and difficulty in breathing. 5.Oxides of nitrogen can irritate the lungs. They lower immunity to respiratory illnesses such as colds and bronchitis. They can worsen the condition of asthmatic people.

6.Sulphur dioxide The burning of coal and oil at factories and power stations emits sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas with a choking smell. It irritates our air passages, causing coughs, breathing difficulties, bronchitis, and lung cancer. 7. Toxins Toxins are released into the air from cigarettes, the exhaust fumes of vehicles and the burning of fuels. Examples of toxins in polluted air are lead compounds and oxides of nitrogen. These toxins cause lead poisoning that kills our cells, damage our lungs and brain, make us cough, and cause lung diseases such as emphysema

8.Haze The exhaust fumes of vehicles, open burning and forest fires produce haze. Haze is made up of tiny solid particles, such as dust and smokes. It irritates the respiratory systems, causing respiratory disorders such as asthma.

By: NURUL ATIQAH MOHD TAIP