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Carlo Magno, PhD.

Lasallian Institute of Development and Educational Research De La Salle University, Manila

The purpose of higher education is to generate and preserve knowledge. Scholars and experts need to expand the body of knowledge for further development.

Generate theories Solve problems Propose action plans Maintain quality

A functional higher education system continuously produce scholarly and scientific work.

CHED RA 7722: Ensure and protect academic freedom for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of responsible and effective leadership, the education of high level professionals, and the enrichment of historical and cultural heritage.

Medium Term Development Plan:

Mobilizing knowledge to improve productivity through

generation, transfer and utilization of research outputs/technologies

Scholarly Journals
Learning Edge (local) Philippine Journal of

Psychology (local) Philippine Journal of Counseling Psychology (local) Guidance Journal (local) Social Science Review (international) Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review (International) Asia-Pacific Education Researcher (International, ISI)

Scholarly: Published empirical/scientific papers Periodical: Each volume is a series of scientific papers Publish research reports Abstracted: Knowledge presented is acceptable in the standards of a scientific community

Check Library (periodical section) Subscription from publishers Open Access Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ) Google Scholar Philippine Journals On-line On-line subscription Psycarticles (IVID, EBSCO) Proquest Science Direct JSTOR

Empirical studies (research/studies) Literature reviews Metanalysis Book reviews Empirical essays

Presence of an abstract Seriated: Volume no. and issue no. Previous works are cited Ex. Other psychologists have focused on similar concepts such as positive and negative dependence (Glasser, 1976) and addiction (e.g., Sachs, 1981) to activities people like. Introduction, method, results, discussion, references (for empirical studies)

Our work is evaluated whether we are contributing to theory


Our work is reviewed by a panel of experts

Public Presentation

Write reports

ISI abstracted Journals

Abstracted journal

International Journal

Local journal

Conference proceeding

In house publication

The Asia Pacific Education Researcher Philippine Political Science Journal Philosophia Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Philippine Agricultural Scientist Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine Philippine Journal of Crop Science

According to Bernardo (2009)

Publication makes your research findings public,

that is, opening to the examination and use by other scholars and knowledge users. Research is a social dimension
A group of people are taking turns in advancing ideas There are participants in the conversation with a common goal; the goal changes as the conversation progresses. Participants decide on norms and standards of the conversation.


New argument or conjecture New definition Clarification illustration or exemplar Elaboration refutation or rebuttal rephrasing

Rebuttal of question Recasting of question Evaluation of an earlier assertion New or alternative interpretation Supportive evidence Contrary evidence

According to Bernardo (2009)

push the conversation forward or towards

some positive direction always involve building on the previous contributions The degree of importance of the contribution depends on the degree to which the contribution advances the conversation.


Select the journal that you want to publish your report Read the scope of the journal to determine if your work can be included Read the editorial policy and procedure Read the guidelines for preparing the manuscript

APA format References Length of the manuscript Location for tables and figures

Read examples of articles published in the journal you selected Read the guidelines for submission Before submitting you may want to ask a colleague to review your work: A colleague that has experience in publishing Somebody who has experienced in publishing in the journal you selected Somebody whose work is related to yours An English major who would want to edit our work

Shape your article based on the editorial guidelines of the journal you have selected. It is advisable to follow the style and pattern of reports published in the journal you selected. If you think you are ready, then submit your manuscript. You get an acknowledgement that your work was received.

Then you wait

The editor sends back the

manuscript for some feedback The review comes

Reject Revise and resubmit

Respond to the reviewers comments:

Process the comments well Need to think of an action to address the

comments of the reviewer Do not take the comments personally If the reviewer do not understand some parts of your paper then you did not make yourself clear in the paper.

Show example of a review

In case of resending

address all comments of the reviewer in a letter. Point out specifically how was your work improved.

Follow the specified format and total number of words from the editorial guidelines Most journals follow the latest edition of the APA

Letter of submission Title page Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion References Appendices

Show example of letter of submission Abstract

150-200 words that summarizes the study State the main purpose Some short background or hypothesis Pertinent method Findings

Includes background, related reviews, framework, purpose, and

hypothesis. Set the background of the study by explaining relevant information directly leading to the proposed research questions. Describe the status of past research in the area under investigation that will eventually lead to the present research questions. The variables under study can be defined and a description on how the variables related to each other.

Justify why is there a need to conduct the present study. Present gaps from past research. Mention the contradictory findings. Explain the rationale why the variables need further investigation. End the introduction deductively by mentioning what will be done in the present study.

Source: Johnston, B. (2001). Toward a new classification of nonexperimental quantitative research. Educational Researcher, 30(2), 3-13.

Research design
Time Dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal Descriptive, CrossDescriptive, sectional (Type 1) Longitudinal (Type 2) Predictive, CrossPredictive, sectional (Type 4) Longitudinal (Type 5) Explanatory, Cross-sectional (Type 7) Explanatory, Longitudinal (Type 8) Retrospective Descriptive, Retrospective (Type 3) Predictive, Retrospective (Type 6) Explanatory, Retrospective (Type 9)

Research Objective Descriptive



Source: Johnston, B. (2001). Toward a new classification of nonexperimental quantitative research. Educational Researcher, 30(2), 3-13.

Design Participants Instruments
What does it measure? What are the factors? Scaling technique? Reliability Validity

Procedure Data Analysis

Start the results section by informing readers the hypothesis of the study and what statistical analysis will be presented in the section. Report the data collected and its statistical treatment through tables and figures. The order of the presentation of the results should follow with the statement of the problem.

Use Tables and figures to organize the results: Report exact values and illustrate main effects (for experiments) Always tell the reader what to look for in the tables and figures Lead the readers specifically to the point what to look at in the table Provide sufficient explanation to make tables and figures readily intelligible

Tips in making interpretation on the results: 1. Begin with the central findings, and then move to more peripheral ones. 2. Remind the conceptual hypothesis or question being asked 3. Tell the answer immediately and in English As table 1 reveals, men do, in fact, cry more profusely than women.

4. Then speak in numbers Thus, the men in all four conditions produced an average of 1.4 cc more tears than the women, F(1, 112) = 5.79, p<1.025 5. Elaborate or qualify the overall conclusion if necessary Only in the father-watching condition did the men fail to produce more tears than the women, but a specific test of this effect failed to reach significance, t = 1.53, p<.12

6. End each section of results with a summary of where things stand Thus, except for the fatherwatching condition, which will be discussed below, the hypothesis that men cry more that women in response to visually depicted grief appears to receive strong support.

Evaluate, interpret, examine the implications

and draw inferences from the results Emphasize theoretical consequences Open the discussion with a support or nonsupport of your alternative hypothesis. Repost the similarities and differences between your results and the work of others should clarify and confirm your solutions Negative results should be accepted as such without an undue attempt to explain them away Identify the practical and theoretical implications of your study

Things to be asked in the discussion: What have I contributed here? How has my study helped to resolve the original problem? What conclusions and theoretical implications can I draw from my study?

Target Journal Title Research Questions Theory supporting your research Method

Participants Instruments Procedure Data Analysis

How is your work different with previous studies? Why is your work publishable?