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Introduction to India

Vivek Joshi
A Warm Welcome- ‘Namaste’

Search for India
Political Frontiers
Conceptualizing India
 Individually list four things you know about
 Share your list with your collective table.
 As a group create a poster and give it a
 Write things in the most common to the
least common order.
Location Proximity
 Location: Southern Asia, bordering the
Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
between Burma and Pakistan Geographic
coordinates:20 00 N, 77 00 E
 Map references: Asia
Location Proximity
 Area total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km Area - comparative:
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
 boundaries: total: 14,103 km
 border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan
605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km,
Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:7,000 km
Geographical Highlights
 Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in
south to temperate in north
 Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in
south, flat to rolling plain along the
Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in
Geographical Highlights
 Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian
Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
 Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest
reserves in the world), iron ore,
manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore,
chromites, natural gas, diamonds,
petroleum, limestone, arable land
Population Distribution
 Population:1,147,995,898 (July 2008 est.) Age
structure:0-14 years: 31.5% (male
189,238,487/female 172,168,306)
15-64 years: 63.3% (male 374,157,581/female
65 years and over: 5.2% (male
28,285,796/female 31,277,725) (2008 est.)
 Median age: total: 25.1 years
male: 24.7 years female: 25.5 years (2008 est.)
Population Distribution
 Population growth rate:1.578% (2008 est.)
 Birth rate:22.22 births/1,000 population
(2008 est.)
 Death rate:6.4 deaths/1,000 population
(2008 est.)
 Nationality: noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
 Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian
25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
 Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%,
Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%,
unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
 Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most
important language for national, political, and commercial
communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue
of 30% of the people; there are 21 other official languages:
Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri,
Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya,
Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu;
Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely
throughout northern India but is not an official language
 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61%
male: 73.4%
female: 47.8% (2001 census)
The Melting Pot
 The culture of India has been shaped by the long history
of India, its unique geography and the absorption of
customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbors
as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, from the
Indus Valley Civilization onward.

 India's great diversity of cultural practices, languages,

customs, and traditions are examples of this unique co-
mingling over the past five millennia.
The Melting Pot
 India is also the birth place of several religious systems
such as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism,
some of which have had a great influence also in other
parts of the world.

 From the thirteenth century onwards, following the

Islamic conquests and the subsequent European
colonialization, the culture of India was influenced by
Turkish, Persian, Arabic and English cultures.

 The various religions and traditions of India that were

created by these amalgamations have influenced South
East Asia and some other parts of the world.
Back ground
 Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto
the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their
merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants
created the classical Indian culture.
 The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries
B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA -
united much of South Asia. The Golden Age
ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th
centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian
science, art, and culture.
Back ground
 Arab incursions starting in the 8th century
and Turkic in the 12th were followed by
those of European traders, beginning in
the late 15th century.
 By the 19th century, Britain had assumed
political control of virtually all Indian lands.
Back ground
 Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both
World Wars.
 Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence
in 1947.
 The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the
smaller Muslim state of Pakistan.
 A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East
Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
 India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct
its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries
over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and
confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since
2002. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output,
India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation,
environmental degradation, and extensive poverty.
Indian Flag
National Emblem
National Bird
Indian National Animal
Lotus - National Flower
6 different types
Mango – National Fruit
more than 36 varieties
Present Political Structure
 A Democratic Republic
 Federation of 28 states & 7 Union Territories
 Supreme Constitution
 Parliament is Legislative Body
 3 pillars – Parliament; Governments; and
 Free Press & Media
Structure of Government
People Vote Parliament

Two Different Houses

Federal Government

Voting State Legislative Assembly

State Government

Local Governing Bodies People Vote

Indian Federation
Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union
 Andhra Pradesh
 Arunachal Pradesh
 Assam
 Bihar
 Chhattisgarh
 Goa
 Gujarat
 Haryana
 Himachal Pradesh
 Jammu and Kashmir
 Jharkhand
 Karnataka
 Kerala
 Madhya Pradesh
 Maharashtra
 Manipur
 Meghalaya
Indian Federation
 Mizoram
 Nagaland
 Orissa
 Punjab
 Rajasthan
 Sikkim
 Tamil Nadu
 Tripura
 Uttar Pradesh
 Uttarakhand
 West Bengal
Union Territories:
 Andaman and Nicobar Islands
 Chandigarh
 Dadra and Nagar Haveli
 Daman and Diu
 Lakshadweep
 National Capital Territory of Delhi
 Pondicherry
Linguistic Diversity
 Indian languages are grouped under two families
- Dravidian and Indo-European. All the south
Indian languages are grouped under Dravidian
family. Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada
are spoken in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka respectively.
The languages are different but resemble in
having rounded alphabets. They have many
Sanskrit words in their vocabulary, but their
grammar is entirely different.
Linguistic Diversity
 On the other hand Hindi, the language spoken
all over north India and in some parts of east
India, belongs to the Indo European family of
languages. It has evolved from various
transitional forms of Sanskrit over a long period
of time. Being the national language it is widely
spoken all over India, but it is more prominent in
the northern parts of the country. Other
languages like Punjabi, Gujarati, Garhwali, etc
are modified forms of Hindi, which are evolved
by mixing the local dialects.
A list of languages as spoken in the respective States -

Andhra Pradesh Telugu & Urdu (in Hyderabad)

Assam Assamese
Bihar Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Santhali & Bengali
Delhi Hindi, Punjabi & English
Goa Konkani, Marathi , Hindi, English & Portuguese
Gujarat Gujarati
Punjab & Haryana Hindi, Punjabi, Haryanvi & Urdu
Himachal Pradesh Hindi & Pahari
Jammu & Kashmir Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi & Tibetan
Karnataka Kannada
Kerala Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh Hindi & Urdu
Maharashtra Marathi, Gujarati & Hindi
Orissa Oriya
Rajasthan Hindi, Rajasthani, Marwari & Urdu
Sikkim Sikkimese, Nepalese
Tamil Nadu Tamil
Uttar Pradesh Hindi, Brijbhasha, Avadhi, Bhojpuri & Urdu
Uttaranchal Garhwali, Kumaoni & Hindi
West Bengal Bengali, Urdu & Nepalese

 Hinduism: The Hindu religion had its origin in the concepts of the
early Aryans who came to India more than 4,000 years ago. It is not
merely a religion but also a philosophy and a way of life. Hinduism
does not originate in the teachings of any one prophet or holy book.
It respects other religions and does not attempt to seek converts. It
teaches the immortality of the human soul and three principal paths
to ultimate union of the individual soul with the all-pervasive spirit.
The essence of Hindu faith is embodied in the Lord's Song, the
Bhagavad Gita: "He who considers this (self) as a slayer or he who
thinks that this (self) is slain, neither knows the Truth. For it does not
slay, nor is it slain. This (self) is unborn, eternal, changeless,
ancient, it is never destroyed even when the body is destroyed.“

 Jainism and Buddhism: In the sixth century before Christ, Mahavira

propagated Jainism. Its message was asceticism, austerity and non-
violence. At about the same time, Buddhism came into being. Gautama
Buddha, a prince, renounced the world and gained enlightenment. He
preached that 'Nirvana' was to be attained through the conquest of self.
Buddha's teachings in time spread to China and some other countries of
South East Asia.

 Islam: Arab traders brought Islam to South India in the seventh century.
After them came the Afghans and the Mughuls, of whom the most
enlightened was the Emperor Akbar. Akbar almost succeeded in founding a
new religion Din-e-Elahi, based on both Hinduism and Islam, but it found
few adherents.
Islam has flourished in India through the centuries. Muslim citizens have
occupied some of the highest positions in the country since independence in
 Sikhism: Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism in the
15th century, stressed the unity of God and the
brotherhood of man. Sikhism, with its affirmation of God
as the one supreme truth and its ideals of discipline and
spiritual striving, soon won many followers. It was
perhaps possible only in this hospitable land that two
religions as diverse as Hinduism and Islam could come
together in a third, namely, Sikhism.
 Christianity: Christianity reached India not long after
Christ's own lifetime, with the arrival of St. Thomas, the
Apostle. The Syrian Christian Church in the south traces
its roots to the visit of St. Thomas. With the arrival of St.
Francis Xavier in 1542 the Roman Catholic faith was
established in India. Today Christians of several
denominations practise their faith freely.
 Zoroastrianism: In the days of the Old Persian Empire,
Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion in West Asia, and in the
form of Mithraism, it spread over vast areas of the Roman Empire,
as far as Britain.
After the Islamic conquest of Iran, a few intrepid Zoroastrians left
their homeland and sought refuge in India. The first group is said to
have reached Diu in about A.D 766. The total number of
Zoroastrians probably does not exceed 130,000. With the exception
of some 10,000 in Iran, almost all of them live in India, the vast
majority concentrated in Mumbai. The Parsees excel in industry and
commerce, and contribute richly to the intellectual and artistic life of
the nation.

 Judaism: Jewish contact with the Malabar Coast in Kerala dates

back to 973 BC when King Solomon's merchant fleet began trading
for spices and other fabled treasures. Scholars say that the Jews
first settled in Cranganore, soon after the Babylonian conquest of
Judea in 586 BC. The immigrants were well received and a Hindu
king granted to Joseph Rabban, a Jewish leader, a title and a
Taj Mahal - Seventh Wonder in
Natural & Architectural Beauty
The Golden Temple
Mysore Palace illuminating at Night
- Karnataka
Meenakshi Temple in Madurai -
Tamil Nadu
Botanical Garden in Ooty - Tamil
Rajasthan scenes & palaces
Indian Dances
 Bharatnatyam is a classical dance form
originating from Tamil Nadu, a state in
Southern India. This popular South Indian
dance form is a 20th century
reconstruction of Cathir, the art of temple
 Kathak (Hindi: कथक, Urdu: ‫ )کتھک‬is a
classical dance form from South Asia
(originally from North India) and is the
national dance of Pakistan. The name
Kathak is derived from the Sanskrit word
katha meaning story, and katthaka in
Sanskrit means s/he who tells a story, or
to do with stories.
 Kathakali (Malayalam: കഥകള, is a form of
Indian dance-drama. It originated in the
Southern Indian state of Kerala during the
late 16th century, approximately between
1555 to 1605 AD
 Kuchipudi (pronounced as 'Koochipoodi') is a
Classical Indian dance form from Andhra
Pradesh, a state of South India. Kuchipudi is the
name of a small village in the Divi Taluq of
Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal
and with resident Brahmins practicing this
traditional dance form, it acquired the present
 "Bhangra" is a lively form of music and dance that
originated in the region of Punjab in North India. It is very
popular during Punjabi social occasions especially
weddings and New Year celebrations. The dance is
performed by male dancers dressed in bright, colourful
attire, accompanied by singing and the beat of the dhol
drum, tumbi and an instrument reminiscent of an
enlarged pair of tings called chimta.
Dealing with An Indian
A Lesson for Corporate in UAE
UAE Population
Population distribution


Nationals (UAE)

25 Other GCC

20 Filipino
Others (Russian,
10 Chinese etc.)

Number (%)
 ‘ Communication means the process of passing
information & understanding from one person to
another. Communication, fundamental & vital to all
managerial functions, is the process of imparting ideas
& understanding’.
-by Theo Haiman
 ‘ Communication is the process of meaningful
interaction among human beings, more specifically it
is the process by which meanings are perceived &
understanding is reached among human beings’.
- by D.E McFarland
Nonverbal Communication
 Giving Nonverbal Feedback
 Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly
affects employee behavior.
• Smiles, positive head nods, and eye contact
• Frowns, head shaking, and avoiding eye contact
 Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations
 Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce
nonverbal errors when working with individuals from
other cultures.
Communication in
Communication is one of the most
important function of management. It
promotes managerial efficiency &
develops a spirit of cooperation. An
effective communication system is an
essential requirement of good labor
management relations.
Factors influencing organizational
communication are as follows
1. Formal channels of communication.
2. The organization's authority structure.
3. Job satisfaction.
4. Information ownership.
Managing Culture
About organizational culture
 Culture varies from one society to another
requiring a study of cross-national & cross
cultural phenomenon within organizations.
What Is Organizational Culture?

1.1. Innovation
2.2. Attention
3.3. Outcome
4.4. People
5.5. Team
6.6. Aggressiveness
7.7. Stability
Organizational Culture
The Basic Functions of
Organizational Culture

Culture/basic functions

Provides a
Enhances Clarifies
sense of
commitment and
identity for
to the reinforces
organization’s standards
mission of behavior
Indian Culture & Organisational Interface

Organisational Elements Indian Employee

Indian Social Values


Regional Religious Economic

Managing organizational culture:
 Leaders should pay continuous attention to
maintaining the established standards & should send
clear signals to all the members as to what is
expected of them at all times. This would ensure that
any deviations from the norms are caught early so
that corrective actions can be taken.
 Good managers are able to support & reinforce an
existing strong culture by being strong role models &
by handling situations that may result into cultural
deviations with great diplomacy.
How to Learn Culture
•• Stories
•• Rituals
•• Material
•• Language
Breaking The
Language Barrier
Interesting Hindi Words

 Guru
 Jungle
 Yoga
 Karma
 Brahma
 Pani
 Shikhsha
 Guna
Understanding Key Terms- Hindi
 Aap ka swagat hai – You are welcome
 Aap kaise hai? - How are you?
 Kya pareshani hai? – What is the problem?
 Kaam kyon nahi hua? – Why work has not
been done?
 Bahut achche! – Very Good
 Dhanyawaad – Thank You
 Kripaya - Please
Sample Word Structure

 WelcomeAll Gurus
Hindi: apka nam kya hai?
English: Your name what is?

English: You how are?

Hindi: aap kaise hai?
1. ियह ििकतने का है ?
This how much is?
yeh kitne kaa hai?

2. दाम ज् यादा है ।
Price high is.
dam jyada hai?

3. कु छ कम िकरये ।
Some reduce please
Kuch kam karei.
Interesting Facts About Hindi
 No Articles
 No Capitals
 At the end of the sentence put । not a
 ?=?
 No silent letters in a word
 Half letters
Issues in Image
Building – A Typical
�The unique combination of
psychological characteristics
(measurable traits) that affect how a
person reacts and interacts with
Depth of Personality

Stability Openness to

The “Big-Five”
Personality Model

Extraversion Conscientiousness Agreeableness

Working with different culture
 A American Boss (A)
 A Greek Subordinate (G)
 A report on product feasibility
 End result – Ego clash and G handing
over his resignation
Understanding an Indian
For ages, Indians were considered quite different from their western
counterparts in terms of the meaning they attached to time, relationships,
work and so on. A lot of this is clearly beginning to change. India and
Indians are seen to be moving from a “high context culture” towards a “low
context culture”.
Stereotyping Indians

Advantages & Disadvantages

 Outline key characteristics of an Indian
(may be your colleague or sub-ordinate or
best if your Boss)

 Justify your observations with your

experience and reason how important are
these traits or characteristics in your day
to day official and personal interaction.
Stereotyping: A Definition

 Stereotyping can be defined as the

process by which people use social
categories (e.g. race, sex) in
acquiring, processing, and recalling
information about others.

 Stereotyping beliefs may serve important

functions - organizing and simplifying
complex situations and giving people
greater confidence in their ability to
understand, predict, and potentially control
situations and people.
there is the complex problem of trying
to impose any psychological
generalization where there is such an
enormous heterogeneity of social
backgrounds, including castes, classes,
religious communities, regional
differences, and the increasingly
enormous split between urban and rural
living. It is all too easy to become one
of those proverbial blind men, who
each persistently mistook part of the
elephant for the whole.
Thank You