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INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

For Business, Economics, and the Life and Social Sciences

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11
Differentiation
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
To compute derivatives by using the limit
definition.
To develop basic differentiation rules.
To interpret the derivative as an instantaneous
rate of change.
To apply the product and quotient rules.
To apply the chain rule.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
Chapter Objectives
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Derivative
Rules for Differentiation
The Derivative as a Rate of Change
The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule
The Chain Rule and the Power Rule

11.1)
11.2)
11.3)
Chapter 11: Differentiation
Chapter Outline
11.4)
11.5)
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.1 The Derivative
Tangent line at a point:

The slope of a curve at P is the slope of the
tangent line at P.
The slope of the tangent line at (a, f(a)) is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
h
a f h a f
a z
a f z f
m
h a z
+
=

=
0
tan
lim lim
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.1 The Derivative
Example 1 Finding the Slope of a Tangent Line
Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = f(x)
= x
2
at the point (1, 1).
Solution: Slope =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
lim
1 1
lim
2 2
0 0
=
+
=
+

h
h
h
f h f
h h
The derivative of a function f is the function
denoted f and defined by

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
h
x f h x f
x z
x f z f
x f
h x z
+
=

=
0
lim lim '
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.1 The Derivative
Example 3 Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line
If f (x) = 2x
2
+ 2x + 3, find an equation of the tangent
line to the graph of f at (1, 7).
Solution:

Slope

Equation
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 4
3 2 2 3 2 2
lim lim '
2
2
0 0
+ =
+ + + + + +
=
+
=

x
h
x x h x h x
h
x f h x f
x f
h h
( )
1 6
1 6 7
+ =
=
x y
x y
( ) ( ) 6 2 1 4 1 ' = + = f
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.1 The Derivative
Example 5 A Function with a Vertical Tangent Line

Example 7 Continuity and Differentiability
Find .

Solution:
( ) x
dx
d
( )
x
h
x h x
x
dx
d
h
2
1
lim
0
=
+
=

a. For f(x) = x
2
, it must be continuous for all x.
b. For f(p) =(1/2)p, it is not continuous at p = 0, thus
the derivative does not exist at p = 0.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Rules for Differentiation:
RULE 1 Derivative of a Constant:

RULE 2 Derivative of x
n
:

RULE 3 Constant Factor Rule:

RULE 4 Sum or Difference Rule
( ) 0 = c
dx
d
( )
1
=
n n
nx x
dx
d
( ) ( ) ( ) x cf x cf
dx
d
' =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x g x f x g x f
dx
d
' ' = =
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Example 1 Derivatives of Constant Functions
a.

b. If , then .

c. If , then .
( ) 0 3 =
dx
d
( ) 5 = x g
( ) ( )
4 . 807
623 , 938 , 1 = t s
( ) 0 ' = x g
0 =
dt
ds
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Example 3 Rewriting Functions in the Form x
n

Differentiate the following functions:
Solution:
a.

b.
x y =
( )
x
x
dx
dy
2
1
2
1
1 2 / 1
= =

( )
x x
x h
1
=
( ) ( )
( ) 2 / 5 1 2 / 3 2 / 3
2
3
2
3
'

= = = x x x
dx
d
x h
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Example 5 Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions
Differentiate the following functions:
( ) x x x F + =
5
3 a.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x
x x x
x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x F
2
1
15
2
1
5 3
3 '
4 2 / 1 4
2 / 1 5
+ = + =
+ =

( )
3 / 1
4
5
4
b.
z
z
z f =
( )
( )
3 / 4 3 3 / 4 3
3 / 1
4
3
5
3
1
5 4
4
1

5
4
'

+ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
z z z z
z dz
d z
dz
d
z f
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Example 5 Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions
8 7 2 6 c.
2 3
+ = x x x y
7 4 18
) 8 ( ) ( 7 ) ( 2 ) ( 6
2
2 3
+ =
+ =
x x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x
dx
d
dx
dy
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.2 Rules for Differentiation
Example 7 Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line
Find an equation of the tangent line to the curve
when x = 1.

Solution: The slope equation is

When x = 1,

The equation is
x
x
y
2 3
2

=
2
1
2
2 3
2 3
2 3

+ =
= =
x
dx
dy
x x
x x
x
y
( ) 5 1 2 3
2
1
= + =

= x
dx
dy
( )
4 5
1 5 1
=
=
x y
x y
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change

Example 1 Finding Average Velocity and Velocity
Average velocity is given by
Velocity at time t is given by

( ) ( )
t
t f t t f
t
s
v
ave
A
A +
=
A
A
=
( ) ( )
t
t f t t f
v
t
A
A +
=
A 0
lim
Suppose the position function of an object moving
along a number line is given by s = f(t) = 3t
2
+ 5,
where t is in seconds and s is in meters.
a. Find the average velocity over the interval [10,
10.1].
b. Find the velocity when t = 10.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
Example 1 Finding Average Velocity and Velocity
Solution:
a. When t = 10,

b. Velocity at time t is given by

When t = 10, the velocity is
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m/s 3 . 60
1 . 0
305 03 . 311
1 . 0
10 1 . 10
1 . 0
10 1 . 0 10
=
=
=

=
+
=
A
A +
=
A
A
=
f f f f
t
t f t t f
t
s
v
ave
t
dt
ds
v 6 = =
( ) m/s 60 10 6
10
= =
= t
dt
ds
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change

Example 3 Finding a Rate of Change
If y = f(x),
then

( ) ( )

A +
=
A
A +
=
A
A
x x x
x
x f x x f
x
y
to from interval
the over x to respect with
y of change of rate average

=
A
A
=
A
x respect to y with
of change of rate ous instantane
lim
0
x
y
dx
dy
x
Find the rate of change of y = x
4
with respect to x,
and evaluate it when x = 2 and when x = 1.
Solution:
The rate of change is .
3
4x
dx
dy
=
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
Example 5 Rate of Change of Volume
A spherical balloon is being filled with air. Find the
rate of change of the volume of air in the balloon with
respect to its radius. Evaluate this rate of change
when the radius is 2 ft.
Solution: Rate of change of V with respect to r is

When r = 2 ft,
( )
2 2
4 3
3
4
r r
dr
dV
t t = =
( )
ft
ft
16 2 4
3
2
2
t t = =
= r
dr
dV
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
Applications of Rate of Change to Economics
Total-cost function is c = f(q).
Marginal cost is defined as .
Total-revenue function is r = f(q).
Marginal revenue is defined as .
dq
dc
dq
dr
Relative and Percentage Rates of Change
The relative rate of change of f(x) is .
The percentage rate of change of f (x) is
( )
( ) x f
x f '
( )
( )
( ) % 100
'
x f
x f
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
Example 7 Marginal Cost
If a manufacturers average-cost equation is

find the marginal-cost function. What is the marginal
cost when 50 units are produced?
Solution: The cost is

Marginal cost when q = 50,
q
q q c
5000
5 02 . 0 0001 . 0
2
+ + =
5000 5 02 . 0 0001 . 0
5000
5 02 . 0 0001 . 0
2 3
2
+ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = =
q q q
q
q q q c q c
5 04 . 0 0003 . 0
2
+ = q q
dq
dc
( ) ( ) 75 . 3 5 50 04 . 0 50 0003 . 0
2
50
= + =
= q
dq
dc
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change
Example 9 Relative and Percentage Rates of Change

11.4 The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule
Determine the relative and percentage rates of
change of

when x = 5.
Solution:
( ) 25 5 3
2
+ = = x x x f y
( ) 5 6 ' = x x f
( ) ( )
( )
( )
% 3 . 33 333 . 0
75
25
5
5 '
change %
25 5 5 6 5 '
= ~ = =
= =
f
f
f
The Product Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x g x f x g x f x g x f
dx
d
' ' + =
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule
Example 1 Applying the Product Rule

Example 3 Differentiating a Product of Three Factors
Find F(x).
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( ) 15 34 12 4 3 5 4 3 2
5 4 3 5 4 3 '
5 4 3
2 2
2 2
2
+ + = + + + + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + =
x x x x x x
x
dx
d
x x x x x
dx
d
x F
x x x x F
Find y.
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
26 18 3
4 3 2 4 3 2 '
) 4 )( 3 )( 2 (
2
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + +
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ + + =
x x
x
dx
d
x x x x x
dx
d
y
x x x y
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule

Example 5 Applying the Quotient Rule
If , find F(x).

Solution:
The Quotient Rule
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
' '
x g
x g x f x f x g
x g
x f
dx
d
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
( )
1 2
3 4
2

+
=
x
x
x F
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2 2
1 2
3 2 1 2 2
1 2
2 3 4 8 1 2

1 2
1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2
'

+
=

+
=

+ +
=
x
x x
x
x x x
x
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x
x F
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule
Example 7 Differentiating Quotients without Using the Quotient Rule
Differentiate the following functions.
( )
( ) ( )
5
6
3
5
2
'
5
2
a.
2
2
3
x
x x f
x
x f
= =
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4
4
3
3
7
12
3
7
4
'
7
4
7
4
b.
x
x x f
x
x
x f
= =
= =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4
5
5
4
1
'
3 5
4
1
4
3 5
c.
2
= =
=

=
x f
x
x
x x
x f
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule

Example 9 Finding Marginal Propensities to Consume and to Save
If the consumption function is given by
determine the marginal propensity to consume and
the marginal propensity to save when I = 100.
Solution:
Consumption Function
dI
dC
consume to propensity Marginal =
consume to propensity Marginal - 1 save to propensity Marginal =
( )
10
3 2 5
3
+
+
=
I
I
C
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + + +
=
2
3 2 / 1
2
3 2 / 3
10
1 3 2 3 3 10
5
10
10 3 2 3 2 10
5
I
I I I
I
I
dI
d
I I
dI
d
I
dI
dC
536 . 0
12100
1297
5
100
~
|
.
|

\
|
=
= I
dI
dC
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.5 The Chain Rule

Example 1 Using the Chain Rule
a. If y = 2u
2
3u 2 and u = x
2
+ 4, find dy/dx.
Solution:
Chain Rule:

Power Rule:
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
=
( )
dx
du
nu u
dx
d
n n 1
=
( ) ( )
( )( ) x u
x
dx
d
u u
du
d
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
2 3 4
4 2 3 2
2 2
=
+ = =
( ) | |( ) ( ) | |( ) x x x x x x
dx
dy
26 8 2 13 4 2 3 4 4
3 2 2
+ = + = + =
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule
Example 1 Using the Chain Rule

Example 3 Using the Power Rule
b. If y = w and w = 7 t
3
, find dy/dt.
Solution:
( ) ( )
3
2 2
3 2 / 1
7 2
3
2
3

7
t
t
w
t
t
dt
d
w
dw
d
dt
dy

= =
=
If y = (x
3
1)
7
, find y.
Solution:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
6
2 2 2
6
3
3
1 7
3
1 21 3 1 7
1 1 7 '
= =
=

x x x x
x
dx
d
x y
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 11: Differentiation
11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule
Example 5 Using the Power Rule

Example 7 Differentiating a Product of Powers
If , find dy/dx.

Solution:
2
1
2

=
x
y
( )( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
2 2 1

= =

x
x
x
dx
d
x
dx
dy
If , find y.

Solution:
( ) ( )
4
5
2
5 3 4 + = x x y
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 24 25 21 5 3 4 2
4 5 3 10 5 3 4 12
4 5 3 5 3 4 '
2
3
4
2
4
2
4 3
5
2
5
2
4 4
5
2
+ + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
x x x x
x x x x x
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x y